NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 3 - Climate

Question 1:

What causes rainfall on the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu in the beginning of winters?

  1. S.W. Monsoons
  2. Temperate cyclons
  3. N.E. Monsoons
  4. Local air circulation

(c). N.E. Monsoons

Question 2:

What is the proportion of area of India which receives annual rainfall less than 75 cms?

  1. Half
  2. One third
  3. Two third
  4. Three fourths

(d). Three fourths

Question 3:

Which one of the following is not a fact regarding South India?

  1. Diurnal range of temperature is less here.
  2. Annual range of temperature is less here.
  3. Temperatures here are high throughout the year.
  4. Extreme climatic conditions are found here.

(d). Extreme climatic conditions are found here.

Question 4:

Which one of the following phenomenon happens when the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere?

  1. High pressure develops over Northwestern India due to low temperatures.
  2. Low pressure develops over Northwestern India due to high temperatures.
  3. No changes in temperature and pressure occur in north-western India.
  4. ‘Loo’ blows in the North-western India.

(a). High pressure develops over Northwestern India due to low temperatures.

Question 5:

In which of the following states in India do we find ‘As’ type of climate as per Koeppen’s classification?

  1. In Kerala and coastal Karnataka
  2. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  3. On Coromandel coast
  4. In Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.

(c). On Coromandel coast

Question 6:

What are the three important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather?


Broadly speaking, the mechanism of Indian weather is influenced by the following three factors :
(a) Surface distribution of pressure and winds which includes Monsoons, location of low pressure and high pressure.
(b) Upper air circulation which includes global weather conditions like air masses and Jet stream.
(c) Atmospheric disturbances like western cyclones and tropical cyclones causing rainfall.

Question 7:

What is the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (I.T.C.Z.)?


Intertropical covergence zone is a narrow equatorial low pressure belt found near the surface on the equator. It changes its position with the shifting of the sun. I.T.C.Z shifts northward to 25°N in summer. It forms a zone of contact of winds and results in the attraction of S.W. Monsoons. In winter, I.T.C.Z. shifts southwards.

Question 8:

What is meant by the phrase ‘Monsoon Burst’ and name the place which gets highest rainfall in India?


The monsoon winds blow in South-west direction on the West coast. These are highly charged with water vapour. It advances rapidly over West coast. The rains begin rather suddenly in the first week of June. This sudden onset of rain is often termed as ‘Monsoon Burst’. The rainfall is heavy accompanied by thunder and lightning. The rain is so sudden and heavy that it appears as if a balloon of water has been burst.
In India, Mawsynram is the rainiest place (1187 cms). It is located on the slopes of Khasi hills.

Question 9:

Define climatic region. Where are the basis of Koeppen’s climatic classification?


A climatic region is an area which has almost uniform atmospheric conditions of temperature, rainfall, clouds, pressure and wind.
Koeppen has divided India into different climatic divisions. It is based on monthly values of temperature and precipitation.

Question 10:

Which type of cyclones provide rainfall in rabi crop growing regions of N.W. India during winter ? Where do they originate?


In states of N.W. India, temperature cyclones give rainfall. These cyclones come from Mediterranean Sea and enter India along with jet stream. Hilly areas get snowfall. These are useful for Rabi crops as wheat.

Question 11:

“Notwithstanding its broad climatic unity, the climate of India has many regional variations.” Elaborate this statement giving suitable examples.


Due to the vast size of India, many regional variations in climatic conditions are found. But due to the influence of monsoons, India as a whole is considered a meteorological unit. India has a broad unity of Monsoon type of climate having same rhythm of season. Many factors like location, altitude, distance from the sea, general relief produce regional variations in pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall. These differences are like sub-types of the basic monsoon type of climate. The given ahead examples illustrate the climatic differences :
(a) Temperature. Barmer (Rajasthan) has recorded day temperatures of 50° C in summer, while hilly regions like Gulmarg (Kashmir) have a day temperature of 22°C in June. The winter temperatures at Dras and Kargil (Ladakh) fall as low as – 40°C, on the other hand Chennai may record only 20°C in December. The annual range of temperature is about 12°C at Cochin while it is about 40°C in Punjab. Coastal regions have almost uniform temperatures throughout the year.
(b) Rainfall. Striking differences are found in rainfall pattern. Cherrapunji (Mawsynram) with an annual rainfall of 1280 cms. is the rainiest place in the world, while Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) rarely gets more than 12 cms. of annual rainfall. The East coastal plain gets rainstorms while Coromandel coast remains dry. When Brahmaputra valley is submerged with floods, it is drought in Bihar.
(c) Monsoons. The dates of onset and withdrawal of Monsoons differ in various parts. The west coast monsoons in the first week of June, while the interior parts like Punjab have monsoons by the first week of July.
(d) Seasons. The southern parts of the country have uniformly high temperatures throughout the year. There is no winter season in the south. On the other hand seasonal extremes are found in the north. ‘Loo’ produces a heat wave in summer while cold wave is felt in winter.