NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 7 - Changing Cultural Traditions

Question 1:

Which elements of Greek and Roman Culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?


The religious, literary and artistic elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Question 2:

Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.


Magnificent buildings were constructed in both the Italian and Islamic architectures. Magnificent cathedrals and monasteries were constructed in Italian architecture, whereas large mosques were built in Islamic architecture. Great care was taken about decoration of these buildings. Arch and pillar were salient features of these buildings.

Question 3:

Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?


A number of classic books were composed by the Roman and Greek Scholars. These books were not read as there was no spread of education. But education spread in Italy by the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries. That is why these books were translated. The humanist views and ideas were introduced to the Italian people by these books and commentaries. First of all the subjects of humanism were taught in the schools and colleges of Italy. These subjects included Natural Science, Anthropology, Astronomy, Medicine, Mathematics, etc. These subjects centred people’s thinking at men and his comforts.

Question 4:

Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.


Venice was an Italian city. It was free from the influence of the Church and feudal lords. Bankers and rich merchants of Venice played an active role in governing the city. On the other hand, there was absolute monarchy in France, where common people were deprived of rights.

Question 5:

What were the features of humanist thought?


Following were the main features of humanist thought :

  1. Freedom of human life from control of religion
  2. Stress on physical pleasures or material pleasures for humans.
  3. It proclaimed freedom of the individual and inalienable rights of the individual.
  4. To encourage dignity of humans.
  5. Ideal life for humans.
Question 6:

Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to Seventeenth century Europeans.


In the seventeenth century the world had entered the modern age. So it had taken a new shape which was different from the earlier world in the following ways :

  1. Towns were growing in many countries of Europe.
  2. New distinct ‘urban culture’ was developing. Townspeople began to think of themselves as more ‘civilised’ than rural people.
  3. Towns—particularly Florence, Venice and Rome—had become centres of art and learning. Towns were enjoying a small amount of autonomy from kings and the Church.
  4. Artists and writers were patronised by the rich and the aristocrats.
  5. The invention of printing made books and prints available to many people.
  6. A sense of history developed in Europe. People contrasted their ‘modern’ world with the ‘ancient’ one of the Greeks and Romans.
  7. Religion came to be seen as something which each individual should choose for himself.
  8. The Church’s earth-centric belief was overturned by scientists who began to understand the solar system. They propounded the sun-centric theory of the solar system.
  9. New geographical knowledge overturned the Europe-centric view that the Mediterranean Sea was the centre of the world.