How did Britain’s involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?
From 1793 to 1815, Britain was at war with France. The British industries were badly affected by this long time involvement of Britain in wars. Factories were forced to shut down because trade between England and Europe was disrupted. Unemployment grew and prices of essential items of food like bread and meat reached very high.
What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
It was easy to carry bulk and heavy goods through canals and was less expensive as well. But it required more time. Goods can not be taken to interior parts of the country.
On contrary to it, very less time was required to carry heavy and bulky goods through railway. Goods could also be taken to interiors of the country through railway.
What were the interesting features of the ‘inventions’ of this period?
Most of the ‘inventions’ of this period were made by the persons who lacked scientific knowledge. They made these inventions on the basis of their determination, interest, curiosity and even luck.
- The designer of the flying shuttle, John Kay and the maker of the spinning jenny, James Hargreaves were familiar with the skills of weaving and carpentry.
- The inventor of the water frame, Richard Arkwright was a barber and wig-maker.
- Samuel Crompton who invented the mule was not technically skilled.
- Edmund Cartwright, the inventor of the power loom, knew little of mechanics. He studied literature, medicine and agriculture and initially wished to become a clergyman.
- Thomas Savery who built a model steam engine (the Miner’s Friend), was an army officer.
- James Watt who developed a machine that converted the steam engine into a prime mover, was a man with a strong mechanical bent.
- The road-builder John Metcaff was blind.
- The canal builder James Brindley was almost illiterate, but he had tremendous powers of memory imagination and concentration.
Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the nature of British industrialisation.
Initially, the British wove cloth out of wool and flax to make linen. From the 17th century, Britain had begun to import bales of cotton cloth from India at great cost. Later on, East India Company established its political control on India after which Britain began to import raw cotton along with cloth. This raw cotton was spun and woven into cloth in Britain.
The process of spinning was very slow during the early years of eighteenth century. That is why spinners were engaged in work for whole of the day but weavers had to wait idly to receive yarn. But many technological inventions took place in this field with which the speed of spinning raw cotton into yarn or thread and of weaving the yarn into fabric increased very rapidly. To bring more efficiency in this process, the process of production was gradually shifted from the homes to factories.
How were lives of different classes of British women affected by the Industrial Revolution?
The lives of different classes of British women were affected by the Industrial Revolution in the following ways :
- Women of poor class began to work in factories. They were forced to work for 15–18 hours a day but paid lower wages. Atmosphere in factories was much polluted and hazardous. It badly affected the women’s health. They died at an early age. Condition of pregnant women was worst. Most of the children were born with diseases and died at birth or at the age of five.
- The Industrial Revolution proved useful for women of middle and rich classes. Latest consumer goods and food items were available for them. Inventions in the means of transportation and communication changed their way of life. Their living standard improved day-by-day.
Compare the effects of the coming of the railways in different countries of the world.
The coming of the railways had different effects in different countries of the world. Imperialist and industrial countries were benefited by their coming. Now they were able to go to the interior parts of the colonies, exploit resources there and thus expand their industries. Contrary to it, industries in colonies were ruined and they had to face acute poverty. African and South American countries fell a victim to the slavery system.