NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 - Data: Its Source and Compilation

Question 1:

A number or character which represents measurement is called—

  1. Digit
  2. Digit
  3. Number
  4. Character

(d) Character

Question 2:

A single datum is a single measurement from the—

  1. Table
  2. Frequency
  3. Real world
  4. Information

(a) Table

Question 3:

In a tally mark grouping by four and crossing fifth is called—

  1. Four and Cross Method
  2. Tally Marking Method
  3. Frequency plotting Method
  4. Inclusive Method

(d) Inclusive Method

Question 4:

An Ogive is a method in which—

  1. Simple frequency is measured
  2. Cumulative frequency is measured
  3. Simple frequency is plotted
  4. Cumulative frequency is plotted

(d) Cumulative frequency is plotted

Question 5:

If both ends of a group are taken in frequency grouping, it is called—

  1. Exclusive Method
  2. Inclusive Method
  3. Marking Method
  4. Statistical Method

(d) Statistical Method

Question 6:

Differentiate between data and information.


Data can be any character, words, text, pictures, video etc. and if not put into context means little or nothing to a human. However information is useful and usually formatted in a manner that allows it to be understood by a human.

Question 7:

What do you mean by data processing?


Data processing is, generally, the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information. In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing.

Question 8:

What is the advantage of footnote in a table?


Advantages of footnote—

  1. Readers can quickly gance down the page to find out the source of the table they are looking at.
  2. Additional information that cannot be put in the table can be given in the footnote.
Question 9:

What do you mean by primary sources of data?


Data collected directly from the field by counting a phenomena or interviewing people is called primary data. The main source of primary data is field investigation.

Question 10:

Enumerate five sources of secondary data.


Five sources of secondary data are—

  1. Government Publications.
  2. Semi/Quasi-government Publications.
  3. International Publications.
  4. Electronic Media.
  5. Newspaper and Magazines.
Question 11:

Discuss the national and international agencies where from secondary data may be collected.


The secondary data are collected from national and international agencies. National agencies are—

  1. Government Publications. The publications of various ministers and the departments of the government of India, state government and the district bulletins are one of the most important sources of secondary information. These include the census of India published by Register General of India, National Sample Survey, Weather Reports of Indian Meterological Department and Statistical Abstracts etc.
  2. International Publications. The international publications comprise year book, reports and monographs published by different agencies of the United Nations such as UNESCO, WHO and other agencies.
Question 12:

What is the importance of an Index number? Taking an example examine the process of calculating an index number and show the changes?


An index number is a statisical measure designed to show changes in variable or a group of related variables with respect to time, geographic location or other characteristic. It is to be noted that index numbers not only measure changes over a period of time but also compare economic conditions of different locations, industries, cities or countries. Index number is widely used in economics and business to see changes in price and quantity. There are various methods for the calculation of index number. Simple aggregate method is most commonly used. It is obtained using the following formula.

Sq1 = Total of the current year production.

Sq0 = Total of the base year production