NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 - Human Development

Question 1:

Which one of the following best describes development?

  1. An increase in size
  2. A constant in size
  3. A positive change in quality
  4. A simple change in the quality

(c) A positive change in quality

Question 2:

Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?

  1. Prof. Amartya Sen
  2. Ellen C. Semple
  3. Dr. Mahabub-Ul-Haq
  4. Ratze

(c) Dr. Mahabub-Ul-Haq

Question 3:

What are the three basic areas of human development?


Access to resources, health and education are the basic areas of human development.

Question 4:

Name the four main components of human development.


Equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment are the four main components of human development.

Question 5:

How are countries classified on the basis of Human Development Index?


Countries are classified into three groups :

Question 6:

What do you understand by the term human development?


Human Development. Development is a dynamic concept. It is a process of growth and realisation of potential utilising resources into full use. Its main purpose is to raise the economic growth. Geography generally uses the terms developed and developing countries.

Human Development Indicators
The World Bank provides every year the world development report. It provides data of production, consumption, demand, energy, capital trade, population growth, health, education of some 186 countries. This report is based on some indicators.

Basic Components of HDI. The three basic components of human development are :

  1. Longevity
  2. Knowledge
  3. Standard of living. India ranks 136th in the world.
Question 7:

What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?


Equity means equal access to opportunities available to every body. The opportunities must be equal to all. There should be no discrimination on the basis of gender, race, income and caste.
Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. Each generation must have the same opportunities. All resources must be used for the welfare of future generations.