NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 - Human Development

Question 1:

Which one of the following is India’s rank in terms of Human Development Index among the countries of the world in 2005?

  1. 126
  2. 127
  3. 128
  4. 129

(a) 129

Question 2:

Which one of the following states of India has the highest rank in the Human Development Index?

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Punjab
  3. Kerala
  4. Haryana

(c) Kerala

Question 3:

Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female literacy?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Jharkhand
  4. Bihar

(d) Bihar

Question 4:

Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female child sex ratio 0-6 years?

  1. Gujarat
  2. Haryana
  3. Punjab
  4. Himachal Pradesh

(d) Haryana

Question 5:

Which one of the following Union Territories of India has the highest litearcy rate?

  1. Lakshadweep
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Daman and Diu
  4. Anadaman and Nicobar Islands

(a) Lakshadweep

Question 6:

Define Human Development.


‘‘Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing their opportunities for education, health care, income and empowerment and covering the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic, social and political freedom.’’

Question 7:

Give two reasons for low levels of human development in most of the Northern states of India.


In the states of Northern India-Punjab, Haryana, U.P., Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Assam—the human development index is less than 0.5. In these states, the per capita annual income is less than ₹ 2000. In these states, the per capita consumption expenditure is high. It is ₹ 520 per month per person. Poverty, unemployment and underemployment are the main causes of low value of Human Development Index.

Question 8:

Give two reasons for declining child sex ratio in India.


In India, the female sex ratio is declining. The child sex ratio between 0-6 age group is declining. This rate is below 800 female children per 1000 male children. For this social attitude is responsible. For this scientific methods of sex-determination are also responsible. Males dominate Indian society. Therefore the health and education of female is ignored.

Question 9:

Discuss the spatial patterns of female literacy in India in 2001 and bring out the reasons for it.


In states of India, spatial variations are found in the female literacy rate. India has national average literacy rate of 65 per cent which is considerably less.

  1. Areas of High female literacy rate. Kerala has the highest female literacy rate of 87.86 per cent, other states are Mizoram (86.13%), Lakshadweep (81.50%), Goa (75.35%), Chandigarh (76.65%) and Andaman & Nicobar islands (75.29%).
  2. Areas of Moderate female literacy rate. (60%-75%) West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Tripura, Sikkim, Punjab, Pondicherry, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh.
  3. Areas of Low female literacy rate (Below 60%) Bihar (33.57%) has the lowest literacy rate. Other states are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Dadra Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Haryana, Telangana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha and Rajasthan.
Question 10:

Which factors have caused spatial variations in the level of Human development among the 15 major states of India?


India ranks 136 (now 135 in 2014) among 186 (now 187 in 2014) countries as regard H.D.I. On its value, India is placed among the moderate group. Kerala (0.638) ranks first in India. In other states, value of HDI is as follows :

Punjab (0.527), Tamil Nadu (0.570) Maharashtra (0.523), Haryana (0.509). The states with low HDI values are Bihar (0.367), Assam (6.386), Uttar Pradesh (0.388), Madhya Pradesh (0.394), Odisha (0.404). Many social, economic and political factors are responsible for these variations.

  1. The literacy rate is high in states with high value of HDI. In states of Central India like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, the HDI value is low due to low literacy rate.
  2. In Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana value of HDI is high due to economic development. In Assam and Bihar, HDI value is low due to low economic development.