NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 - Human Settlements

Question 1:

Which one of the following forms of settlement develops along either side of roads, rivers or canals?

  1. Circular
  2. Cross-shaped
  3. Linear
  4. Square

(c) Linear

Question 2:

Which one of the following types of economic activities dominates in all rural settlement?

  1. Primary
  2. Secondary
  3. Tertiary
  4. Quaternary

(a) Primary

Question 3:

In which of the following regions has the oldest well-documented urban settlement found?

  1. Huang He Valley
  2. Indus Valley
  3. Nile Valley
  4. Mesopotamia

(b) Indus Valley

Question 4:

How many of the following cities in India have attained the million status at the beginning of 2011?

  1. 40
  2. 54
  3. 42
  4. 43

(b) 54

Question 5:

Sufficiency of which type of resources can help to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the needs of the large population in the developing countries?

  1. Financial
  2. Natural
  3. Human
  4. Social


Question 5:

How would you define a settlement?


Settlement refers to an organised colony of human beings together with the buildings in which they live. It includes the temporary and the permanent settlements called villages; and large urban agglomerations. Human settlements may consist of only a few dwelling units (hamlets), or they may be as large as megalopolis.

Question 6:

Distinguish between site and situation.


Site refers to the actual piece of ground on which the settlement is built. Situation or Position refers to the location of the village or town in relation to surrounding areas. The site and situation of the settlements and the type of building may be studied in relation to the physical environment and cultural heritage.

Question 7:

What are the basis of classifying settlements?


Settlements are commonly classified on the basis of size and functions. Accordingly, settlements are divided into rural and urban or villages and towns. The terms rural and urban are relative. There is no universally acceptable criteria to distinguish rural from urban.

Question 8:

How would you justify the study of human settlements in human geography?


The study of human settlements is basic to human geography. The form of human settlement in any particular region reflects human relationship with environment.

Question 9:

What are Rural and Urban settlements? Mention their characteristics.


Classify the population of the world on the basis of their residence into two groups. How are they different form each other? Explain.


Question 10:

Discuss the problem associated with urban settlements in developing countries.


‘There is no consensus on what exactly define a village or a town’. Analyse the statement by using different criteria.


Describe any five environmental problems of urban settlements in the developing countries of the world.


Urban growth processes in the world’s developing regions have been different from those in developed regions. In the developed countries, urban growth was accompanied by industrialisation. In developing countries demographic growth has preceded economic development.

  1. Lack of Employment. The unprecedented urban growth in these regions has been driven by lack of employment opportunities in rural areas rather than the pull of prospective jobs in towns and cities. London took 190 years to grow from a city of half a million population to 10 million population and New York took 140 years; by contrast, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Kolkata, Seoul and Mumbai all took less than 75 years to grow from half a million to 10 million.
  2. Urban Slums. Over urbanisation or uncontrolled urbanisation has given rise to slums and squatter settlements, making urban life miserable world over. Over 600 million people live under life threatening situations in cities and 300 million live in extreme poverty.
  3. Pollution. The emerging urban scenario in developing countries has robbed the rural areas of its able labour force. Ecological degradation and social pollution has sapped their energy.
  4. Shortage of Housing, etc. At the same time, the urban settlements too have suffered from shortage of housing, transport, health and other civic amenities. Both these places are devoid of quality-life. In Africa, only one-third of all households are connected to potable water.
  5. Lack of Sewerage. In Asia Pacific, only 38 per cent of urban households are connected to sewerage system. In many cities in the developing countries, an increasing proportion of the population lives in substandard housing or on the streets. In most of the million plus cities in India, one in four inhabitants live in illegal settlements, which is growing twice as fast as the rest of the cities.

Jhuggi-Jhopri. These settlements have arisen near towns. Dharavi near Mumbai is Asia’s largest slum.