NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 - Land Resources and Agriculture

Question 1:

Which one of the following is NOT a land-use category?

  1. Fallow land
  2. Marginal land
  3. Net Area Sown
  4. Culturable Wasteland

(b) Marginal land

Question 2:

Which one of the following is the main reason due to which share of forest has shown an increase in the last forty years?

  1. Extensive and efficient efforts of afforestation
  2. Increase in community forest land
  3. Increase in notified area allocated for forest growth
  4. Better peoples’ participation in managing forest area.

(c) Increase in notified area allocated for forest growth.

Question 3:

Which one of the following is the main form of degradation in irrigated areas?

  1. Gully erosion
  2. Wind erosion
  3. Salinisation of soils
  4. Siltation of land

(d) Siltation of land

Question 4:

Which one of the following crops is not cultivated under dryland farming

  1. Ragi
  2. Jowar
  3. Groundnut
  4. Sugarcane

(d) Sugarcane

Question 5:

In which of the following group of countries of the world, HYVs of wheat and rice were developed?

  1. Japan and Australia
  2. U.S.A. and Japan
  3. Mexico and Phillippines
  4. Mexico and Singapore

(c) Mexico and Phillippines

Question 6:

Differentiate between Barren land, Waste land and Culturable Waste land.

  1. Barren land. Arid, Sandy and Rocky land which cannot be cultivated is called Barren land.
  2. Waste land. The land which has been degraded due to soil erosion and is not cultivated is called Waste land.
  3. Culturable Waste land. A land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is called Culturable Waste land.
Question 7:

How would you distinguish between Net sown area and Gross cropped area?

  1. Net sown area. The extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area.
  2. Gross cropped area. The total area (including the area grown more than once in a year) under cultivation is called gross cropped area.
Question 8:

Why is the strategy of increasing cropping intensity important in country like India?


Classify rainfed farming on the basis of adequacy of soil moisture during cropping season.


Distinguished between ‘Dryland farming and Wet land farming.’


What is the difference between Dryland and Wetland farming.


Effects :
Technology helps to raise the yield per hectare and total output per unit area. It is done by increasing land use intensity.

  1. It increases the demand for labour.
  2. In India, a high cropping intensity is necessary for fuller utilisation of land resources.
  3. It also reduces unemployment in the rural economy.
Question 9:

How do you measure total cultivable land?The total cultivable land can be measured by adding up net sown area, all fallow lands and culturable waste land.


The total cultivable land can be measured by adding up net sown area, all fallow lands and culturable waste land.

Question 10:

What are the different types of environmental problems of land resources in India?


Many serious problems of land resources arise due to degradation of land. It leads to depletion of soil fertility. A large area of agricultural land has lost its fertility due to alkalisation and salinisation of soils and water logging. It has affected about 15 lakh ha. of land. Excessive use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides has led to their concentration in toxic amount in the soil profile. Fallow land has declined. Rainfed areas experience degradation by soil erosion by water and wind.

Question 11:

What are the important strategies for Agricultural development followed in the post independence period in India?


“After independence various important strategies were adopted for agricultural development in India.” Substantiate the statement.


After Independence, the immediate goal of the Government was to increase foodgrains production by (i) switching over from cash crops to food crops ; (ii) intensification of cropping over already cultivated land ; and (iii) increasing cultivated area by bringing cultivable and fallow land under plough. Initially, this strategy helped in increasing foodgrains production. But agricultural production stagnated during late 1950s. To overcome this problem, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) and Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) were launched. But two consecutive droughts during mid-1960s resulted in food crisis in the country. Consequently, the foodgrains were imported from other countries.