Which out of the following states has major oil fields?
On which station out of the following, the first atomic station was set up?
Out of the following, which mineral is called ‘Brown diamond’?
Which is the non-renewable source of energy?
Give an account of the distribution of Mica in India.
Mica in India is produced in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan followed by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. (1) In Jharkhand, high quality mica is obtained in a belt extending over a distance of about 150 km, in length and about 22 km, in width in lower Hazaribagh plateau. (2) In Andhra Pradesh, Nellore district produces the best quality mica. (3) In Rajasthan, mica belt extends for about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur. (4) Mica deposits also occur in Mysore and Hasan districts of Karanataka. (5) Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, and Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in Kerala. (6) Ratnagiri in Maharasthra. (7) Purulia and Bankura in West Bengal.
What is Nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.
Nuclear power is generated by splitting atomic minerals like Uranium and Thorium. This is known as atomic fission. The Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948 in India. There are four atomic power stations in India. (1) Tarapur (Maharashtra) (2) Rana Pratap Sagar (Kota) (3) Kalpakkam (Chennai) (4) Narora (Uttar Pradesh) Two atomic stations at Kakarpara (Gujarat) and Kaiga (Karnataka) are at planning stage.
Name two non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.
Copper. India is deficient in copper and has to depend on foreign supplies. The total reserves are estimated at 570 million tonnes. The annual production in 2013–13 was 3639 thousand tonnes.
Areas of production. Copper occurs in crystalline rocks in the peninsular plateau.
Areas of Production: Odisha happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite (about 36% share in total production). Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers. The other two areas which have been increasing their production are Bolangir and Koraput. The patlands of Jharkhand in Lohardaga have rich deposits. Gujarat (20%), Chhattisgarh (12%), Madhya Pradesh (5%) and Maharashtra (13%) are other major producers. Bhavanagar, Jamnagar in Gujarat have the major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh have important deposits of bauxite. Colaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.
What are non-conventional sources of energy?
Solar energy, Wind power, Geo-Thermal, Biomass and Tidal energy are unconventional sources of energy.
Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.
Petroleum. Petroleum is the most important source of power in the present age. Many by-products such as kerosene, fuel, lubricating oils, grease, coke and asphalt are obtained from petroleum. Petro-chemical products have become very useful. Petroleum is used in agriculture industry, transport, paints, perfumes, cosmetics, etc. It is the source of foreign exchange for many oil exporting countries. So, it is rightly called the ‘liquid gold’.
Production. In about 10 lakh sq. km. oil bearing rocks are found in India. The oil reserves in India are estimated to be 50 crore metric tonnes.
The first oil field in India was discovered in 1867 at Makum in Assam. At present the production is as under:
The production of oil in India is increasing everywhere under the organisation of Oil and Natural Gas Commission. The production of oil in India rose from 26 lakh tonnes in 1951 to 182 lakh tonnes in 1982-83. It was estimated to be about 320 lakh tonnes in 2015. India meets about 40% of its demands by home production. We import crude oil and other petroleum products from foreign countries. There are at present 12 oil refineries in India. These refineries are expanded to meet the increasing requirements of the country. It will help in saving a large amount of foreign exchange.
Oil-Refineries. There are already 12 refineries in the country. These refineries include (i) Barauni (Bihar) (ii) Mumbai (Maharashtra) (iii) Cochin (Kerala) (iv) Digboi (Assam) (v) Guwahati (Assam) (vi) Haldia (West Bengal) (vii) Vishakhaptnam (Andhra Pradesh) (viii) Koyali (Gujarat) (ix) Chennai (Tamil Nadu) (x) Mathura (U.P.) (xi) Karnal (Haryana) (to be set up) (xii) Kochi. Two refineries by H.P.C.L. and B.P.C.L. have been set up at Mumbai. ONGC has set up a refinery at Tatipacca (Andhra Pradesh). The largest oil refinery has been set up at Jamnagar by Reliance Petroleum limited.
Write an essay on hydel power in India.
Hydel power. Hydel power is an inexhuastible resource. It is a permanent resource as compared to coal and oil. Resources such as coal and oil will exhaust in time but water-power will remain forever.
In recent years water-power is becoming more and more important in the industrial economy. It has many advantages over fossil fuels of coal and oil. The use of water-power is increasing with an aim of conserving coal and petroleum.
Water-Power (Hydel Power) in India. In India, the first power house was set up at Siva Samudram (Karnataka) on the river Cauvery in 1902. After independence, many power projects were started to develop hydro-electricity under multipurpose projects. But some projects are exclusively hydel power projects. Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu region and Himalayan region have favourable conditions for development of water power.
The power that could be generated, if all the water resources of a country are used, is called potential waterpower. India has a potential waterpower of 40 million kilowatts. India stands fifth in the world in potential power resources. This high potential power is due to favourable geographical conditions of rainfall, relief, waterfalls. Most of developed water power is in the northern India because it has high rainfall, large rivers, regular supply of water and demand due to industrial development. The Northern India has high mountains which provide waterfall suitable for power generation. In 2007, Hydro-electricity generated was 74.5 billion kwh.