NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 - Mineral and Energy Resources

Question 1:

Which out of the following states has major oil fields?

  1. Assam
  2. Bihar
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Tamil Nadu

(a) Assam

Question 2:

On which station out of the following, the first atomic station was set up?

  1. Kalpakkam
  2. Narora
  3. Rana Partap Sagar
  4. Tarapur

(d) Tarapur

Question 3:

Out of the following, which mineral is called ‘Brown diamond’?

  1. Iron ore
  2. Lignite
  3. Manganese
  4. Mica

(b) Mica

Question 4:

Which is the non-renewable source of energy?

  1. Hydel
  2. Solar
  3. Thermal
  4. Wind

(c) Thermal

Question 5:

Give an account of the distribution of Mica in India.


Mica in India is produced in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan followed by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. (1) In Jharkhand, high quality mica is obtained in a belt extending over a distance of about 150 km, in length and about 22 km, in width in lower Hazaribagh plateau. (2) In Andhra Pradesh, Nellore district produces the best quality mica. (3) In Rajasthan, mica belt extends for about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur. (4) Mica deposits also occur in Mysore and Hasan districts of Karanataka. (5) Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, and Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in Kerala. (6) Ratnagiri in Maharasthra. (7) Purulia and Bankura in West Bengal.

Question 6:

What is Nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.


Nuclear power is generated by splitting atomic minerals like Uranium and Thorium. This is known as atomic fission. The Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948 in India. There are four atomic power stations in India. (1) Tarapur (Maharashtra) (2) Rana Pratap Sagar (Kota) (3) Kalpakkam (Chennai) (4) Narora (Uttar Pradesh) Two atomic stations at Kakarpara (Gujarat) and Kaiga (Karnataka) are at planning stage.

Question 7:

Name two non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.

  1. Copper. India is deficient in copper and has to depend on foreign supplies. The total reserves are estimated at 570 million tonnes. The annual production in 2013–13 was 3639 thousand tonnes.

    Areas of production. Copper occurs in crystalline rocks in the peninsular plateau.

    1. Jharkhand: Singhbhum district (Mosabani, Rakha, Dhobani mines)
    2. Madhya Pradesh: Balaghat.
    3. Rajasthan: Jhunjhunu (Khetri area) and Koh Dariba in Alwar.
    4. Other areas: Khamman (Andhra), Hassan and Chitradurga (Karnataka), Sikkim, Kulu (Himachal Pradesh).
  2. Bauxite. Bauxite is the ore which is used in manufacturing of aluminium. Bauxite is found mainly in tertiary deposits and is associated with laterite rocks occurring extensively either on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India and also in the coastal tracts of the country. The production of Bauxite in 2012–13 was 15360 thousand tonnes.

Areas of Production: Odisha happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite (about 36% share in total production). Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers. The other two areas which have been increasing their production are Bolangir and Koraput. The patlands of Jharkhand in Lohardaga have rich deposits. Gujarat (20%), Chhattisgarh (12%), Madhya Pradesh (5%) and Maharashtra (13%) are other major producers. Bhavanagar, Jamnagar in Gujarat have the major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh have important deposits of bauxite. Colaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.

Question 8:

What are non-conventional sources of energy?


Solar energy, Wind power, Geo-Thermal, Biomass and Tidal energy are unconventional sources of energy.

Question 9:

Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.


Petroleum. Petroleum is the most important source of power in the present age. Many by-products such as kerosene, fuel, lubricating oils, grease, coke and asphalt are obtained from petroleum. Petro-chemical products have become very useful. Petroleum is used in agriculture industry, transport, paints, perfumes, cosmetics, etc. It is the source of foreign exchange for many oil exporting countries. So, it is rightly called the ‘liquid gold’.

Production. In about 10 lakh sq. km. oil bearing rocks are found in India. The oil reserves in India are estimated to be 50 crore metric tonnes.
The first oil field in India was discovered in 1867 at Makum in Assam. At present the production is as under:

  1. Assam. In Assam, oil is produced in Digboi, Moran, Naharkatiya and Sibsagar regions.
  2. Gujarat. In Gujarat, oil is produced in Gulf of Cambay region at Kalol. Ankleshwar, Lunej, etc.
  3. Maharasthra. Oil has struck in the off-shore region at Mumbai High along the coast of Mumbai. It is the leading producer of crude oil in India. North Bassein and South Bassein are the important oil fields.

The production of oil in India is increasing everywhere under the organisation of Oil and Natural Gas Commission. The production of oil in India rose from 26 lakh tonnes in 1951 to 182 lakh tonnes in 1982-83. It was estimated to be about 320 lakh tonnes in 2015. India meets about 40% of its demands by home production. We import crude oil and other petroleum products from foreign countries. There are at present 12 oil refineries in India. These refineries are expanded to meet the increasing requirements of the country. It will help in saving a large amount of foreign exchange.

Oil-Refineries. There are already 12 refineries in the country. These refineries include (i) Barauni (Bihar) (ii) Mumbai (Maharashtra) (iii) Cochin (Kerala) (iv) Digboi (Assam) (v) Guwahati (Assam) (vi) Haldia (West Bengal) (vii) Vishakhaptnam (Andhra Pradesh) (viii) Koyali (Gujarat) (ix) Chennai (Tamil Nadu) (x) Mathura (U.P.) (xi) Karnal (Haryana) (to be set up) (xii) Kochi. Two refineries by H.P.C.L. and B.P.C.L. have been set up at Mumbai. ONGC has set up a refinery at Tatipacca (Andhra Pradesh). The largest oil refinery has been set up at Jamnagar by Reliance Petroleum limited.

Question 10:

Write an essay on hydel power in India.


Hydel power. Hydel power is an inexhuastible resource. It is a permanent resource as compared to coal and oil. Resources such as coal and oil will exhaust in time but water-power will remain forever.

In recent years water-power is becoming more and more important in the industrial economy. It has many advantages over fossil fuels of coal and oil. The use of water-power is increasing with an aim of conserving coal and petroleum.

Water-Power (Hydel Power) in India. In India, the first power house was set up at Siva Samudram (Karnataka) on the river Cauvery in 1902. After independence, many power projects were started to develop hydro-electricity under multipurpose projects. But some projects are exclusively hydel power projects. Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu region and Himalayan region have favourable conditions for development of water power.

The power that could be generated, if all the water resources of a country are used, is called potential waterpower. India has a potential waterpower of 40 million kilowatts. India stands fifth in the world in potential power resources. This high potential power is due to favourable geographical conditions of rainfall, relief, waterfalls. Most of developed water power is in the northern India because it has high rainfall, large rivers, regular supply of water and demand due to industrial development. The Northern India has high mountains which provide waterfall suitable for power generation. In 2007, Hydro-electricity generated was 74.5 billion kwh.

  1. The Rihand Project is the largest man-made lake in India on the borders of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It has the capacity to produce 300 MW. power every year.
  2. The Koyna Project in Maharashtra is on an east flowing tributary of the Krishna. A dam on the Koyna had been built only to take water through a tunnel to the western slopes of the Ghats. Its capacity is 880 MW. It feeds power to Mumbai-Pune industrial region.
  3. The Sharavati Project in Karnataka is located at the Jog Falls, the highest in India. Its total capacity is 891 MW. Besides Bangalore industrial region, it supplies electricity to the states of Goa and Tamil Nadu.
  4. Kalinadi Project in Karnataka had 270 MW capacity.
  5. The Kundoh Project in Tamil Nadu had initially 435 MW capacity which has been expanded lately to 535 MW.
  6. The Sabargiri Project in Kerala has an installed capacity of 300 MW while the Idukki Project has a capacity of 390 MW.
  7. The Balimel Project in Odisha has an installed capacity of 360 MW and in Gujarat Ukai Project has a capacity of 300 MW.
  8. Salal Hydel Power Project (J & K) has been completed and the new ones are being taken up. They together would provide over a 1000 MW of power.
  9. Chukha Project (Bhutan). Besides these power projects, India constructed a very big hydel power project in Bhutan at Chukha. It was financed by India. The surplus energy is bought by India for its use in the north-eastern parts of the country including West Bengal.
  10. Tehri Hydel Power Project. It is a joint project of the Government of India and Uttarakhand state. Tehri Hydro development corporation was set up in 1988. The aim is to generate 2400 MW of power and irrigate 27000 Hectares. There have been many hindrances to the start of this project due to deterioration of environment and the dangers due to this seismic zone.