NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

Question 1:

Regional planning relates to:

  1. Development of various sectors of economy
  2. Area specific approach of development
  3. Area differences in transportation network
  4. Development of rural areas

(b) Area specific approach of development

Question 2:

ITDP refers to which one of the following?

  1. Integrated Tourism Development Programme
  2. Integrated Travel Development Programme
  3. Integrated Tribal Development Programme
  4. Integrated Transport Development Programme

(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme

Question 3:

Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

  1. Agricultural development
  2. Eco-development
  3. Transport development
  4. Colonisation of land

(d) Colonisation of land

Question 4:

What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur Tribal Region?


The tribal development programme in Bharmaur region has resulted in development of infrastructure like schools, healthcare facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity. It has raised the standard of living of Gaddi People. Female literacy rate has increased and tranhumance has reduced.

Question 5:

Define the concept of sustainable development.


It pleads for the conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources. It takes into account the development of the whole humankind which have common future.

Question 6:

What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?


This canal will extend the irrigation facilities in this region. Canal irrigation will transform its ecology, economy and society. Due to irrigation, crops will be grown successfully, like wheat, cotton, groundnut, and rice.

Question 7:

Write short notes on drought prone area programme. How do this programme helps in the development of dryland agriculture in India?


Drought prone area Programmes have been started in areas which get annual rainfall of less than 50 cms. and have an irrigated area of less than 30 per cent. These will provide facilities of irrigation, land development, forestry, grassland development and rural infrastructural facilities of roads, markets, electricity, etc. In such areas Agro-climatic planning will also be done to meet the shortage of moisture. Rain harvesting programmes will also be started. Due to irrigation facilites, these areas will not be affected by droughts. Dry farming will be practised so that crops which can stand dry conditions can be grown.

Question 8:

Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.


Measures for Promotion of Sustainable Development in Indira Canal Command Area. The ecological sustainability of Indira Gandhi Canal Project has been questioned by various scholars. Their point of view has also been largely validated by the course of development this region has taken during the last four decades, which has resulted in degradation of physical environment. It is a hard fact that attaining sustainable development in the command area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability. Hence, five of the seven measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.

  1. Water managment. The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
  2. Plantation crops. In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
  3. Equal distribution of water. The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
  4. Land reformers. The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
  5. Forestry. The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
  6. Agriculture. The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
  7. Economic diversification. The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of the economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres and market centres.