NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 - Population Composition

Question 1:

Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of United Arab Emirate to be low.

  1. Selective migration of working population
  2. High birth rate of males
  3. Low birth rate of females
  4. High out migration of females.

(d) High out migration of females.

Question 2:

Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population?

  1. 15 to 65 years
  2. 15 to 66 years
  3. 15 to 64 years
  4. 15 to 59 years

(d) 15 to 59 years

Question 3:

Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?

  1. Latvia
  2. Japan
  3. United Arab Emirates
  4. France

(a) Latvia

Question 4:

What do you understand by population composition?


Population composition means demographic structure. It includes age, sex, literacy, occupations, life expectancy. People are distinguished by these attributes

Question 5:

What is significance of age structure?


The age structure of a population refers to number of people in different age groups. It is an important indicator of population composition.

  1. It helps to know the labour force of a region,
  2. It helps to know the employment of a region and dependent population.
  3. It helps to know the future growth of population of a region.
Question 6:

How is sex ratio measured?


Sex Ratio is the number of females per 1000 males. It is calculated by using the following formula :

Question 7:

Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.


On the basis of the residence, the population is divided into two groups—(a) Rural population (b) Urban population. Comparison. These two groups differ from each other in the following ways :

(i) Life style (ii) Livelihood (iii) Social conditions (iv) Density of population (v) Level of development.

(a) Rural areas are those where people are engaged in Primary activities.

(b) Urban areas are those where majority of the working population is engaged in non-primary activities.
Differences. (i) In western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas
(ii) Females outnumber males in urban areas
(iii) In developing countries, females outnumber males in Rural areas and males outnumber females in urban areas. Reasons. (a) The excess of females in urban areas is the result of influx of females from rural areas for jobs.

(b) Farming is dominated by males in rural areas.

(c) Females participate in farming in rural areas in large number in developing countries.

(d) Women are discouraged to migrate to urban areas due to high cost of living and lack of security.

Question 8:

Discuss the factors for imbalance in sex age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.


Give two reasons for unfavourable sex ratio in the world.


The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called sex ratio. There is a great imbalance in sex age structure in developed and developing countries.

  1. It is due to gender discrimination.
  2. Sex ratio is unfavourable where female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women is prevalent.
  3. Lower socio-economic status of women.
    Occupational Structure. The working population (15-59 years) takes part in various occupations such as agriculture, forestry, manufacturing, construction, transport, services etc. These are grouped with primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary occupations. (i) These differ in different countries due to level of economic development. (ii) Primitive economies have more of the people engaged in Primary occupations. (iii) Developed economies with industries and infrastructure have more people in secondary and tertiary activities.