NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 - Population : Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

Question 1:

India’s population as per 2011 census is:

  1. 1028 million
  2. 1028 million
  3. 3182 million
  4. 1210 million

(d) 1210 million

Question 2:

Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India?

  1. West Bengal
  2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Kerala
  4. Bihar

(d) Bihar

Question 3:

Which one of the following states has the highest proportion of urban population in India according to 2001 Census?

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Kerala
  3. Maharashtra
  4. Goa

(d) Goa

Question 4:

Which one of the following is the largest group of India?

  1. Sino-Tibetan
  2. Austric
  3. Indo-Aryan
  4. Dravidian

(c) Indo-Aryan

Question 5:

Very hot and dry and very cold and wet regions of India have low density of population. In this light, explain the role of climate on the distribution of population.


It is clear that climate determines the pattern of distribution of population. (i) Very hot and dry areas have low density of population such as Rajasthan desert has a density of 201 persons per sq km. (ii) Dry areas like the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka have density of population below the national average. (iii) Similarly, very cold and wet regions have low density of population such as Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. These have a density of population below 200 persons per sq. km.

Question 6:

Which states have large rural population in India? Give one reason for such large rural population.


India is a land of villages with 6,38,588 villages. Average rural population is 68%. In India, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have more than 80% rural population. Reason : This large rural population is due to the fact that the main occupation of the people is agriculture.

Question 7:

Why do some states of India have higher rates of work participation than others?


Some states like Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have a high percentage of workers engaged in agriculture. Therefore, work participation is more in the secondary and tertiary sectors. Farmers depend on Agro-based occupations, but now the dependence on an agricultural activities is increasing.

Question 8:

‘The Agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers.’ Explain.


The occupational structure of India shows that the Agriculture (Primary sector) has the highest number of workers. 58.2% of the working population are farmers. Agriculture is the basis of livelihood for most of the people in India. Therefore, working population in non-agricultural activities is less.

Question 9:

Discuss the spatial pattern of density of population in India.


The spatial pattern of population distribution is uneven in India. (i) High Population : Uttar Pradesh has the highest population (20 crore). Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have almost 50% population of the country. Delhi has more population than the population of all the Union Territories combined population. (ii) Low Population :

  1. Madhya Pradesh has 14% area of the country, but only 7.6% population of India.
  2. Himalayan region with 17% area covers only 2% population of India. Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest density of population (17 persons per sq. km.).
  3. Central India, vast areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka has moderate density of population. Therefore, the spatial distribution of population depends on physical, economic, social and historical factors.
Question 10:

Give an account of the occupational structure of India.


The occupational structure means the engagement of an individual in farming, manufacturing, trade, services, etc. 58.2% of working population of India are cultivators. Only 4.2% are engaged in household industries and 37.6% are workers of non-household industries, trade, commerce, construction and services. So the number of workers in primary sector is more than secondary and tertiary sectors.