NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 - Secondary Activities

Question 1:

Which one of the following statements is wrong?

  1. Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
  2. Sugar, cotton, textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
  3. The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry.
  4. Port towns in India have attracted industries.

(b) Sugar, cotton, textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.

Question 2:

In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually?

  1. Capitalist
  2. Mixed
  3. Socialist
  4. None

(a) Capitalist

Question 3:

Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?

  1. Cottage Industries
  2. Small-scale Industries
  3. Basic Industries
  4. Footloose Industries

(c) Basic Industries

Question 4:

Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. Auto mobile industry ............ Los Angeles
  2. Ship building Industry ............ Lusaka
  3. Air craft Industry ............ Florence
  4. Iron and Steel industry ............ Pittsburg

(d) Iron and Steel industry ............ Pittsburg

Question 5:

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words:
High Tech. Industry.


High tech. Industries develop due to application of Intensive Research and Development (R & D). Products of advanced scientific and engineering character are manufactured. Computer Aided design electronic controls of Smelting and Refining are examples of high tech. industry.

Question 6:

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words:


Manufacturing is the process of conversion of raw materials into useful finished products. It is a secondary occupation of man. It is the second largest productive occupation of man. Manufacturing is done with modern power and machinery for mass production.

Question 7:

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words:
Footloose Industries.


In past few decades, high-technology activities are expanding fast. Highly sophisticated products are developed involving a great deal of scientific research and development. These industries improve their products very fast to suit the market demand and employ highly skilled labour. Such industries are referred to as foot-loose industries as they have relatively free choice of location.

Question 8:

Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.


The following changing trends are observed in industrial development of developed countries.

  1. High tech. Industries are developing, but low tech and labour intensive industries are shifting to developing countries.
  2. Large factories are giving way to smaller units.
  3. Rapid changes in design and production are taking place.
  4. Mass production and manufacture of highly standardised products is taking place.
  5. Locational factors are losing their importance.
  6. Waste avoidance, recycling, and alternatives are contributing a lot.
Question 9:

Differentiate between Primary and Secondary activities.


Question 10:

Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripherial areas of metropolitan centre.


High-tech Industrial State and Technology Park. Foot-loose industries tend to be attracted to purpose-built industrial estates or technology parks on the edge of towns and cities as is the case with London or Tokyo. These places offer a number of advantages over inner city locations.

  1. space for single-storey factories and future expansion.
  2. cheaper land values on edge-of-city.
  3. accessibility to main roads and motorways.
  4. pleasant environment (often located on a greenfield site).
  5. labour supply from nearby residential area and commuter village.
Question 11:

Africa has numerous natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.


Africa has rich water power and mineral resources. Africa has about 40% of world potential water power resources but only 1% of world developed power resources. It is due to lack of technology and low purchasing power. Africa is rich in mineral resources, but these have not been utilised due to lack of industries. A resource is no resource until it is developed. So Africa still remains a backward continent.