NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 - Transport and Communication

Question 1:

In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

  1. 9
  2. 16
  3. 12
  4. 14

(b) 16

Question 2:

On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?

  1. The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri
  2. The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad
  3. West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam

(b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

Question 3:

In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?

  1. 1911
  2. 1927
  3. 1936
  4. 1923

(d) 1923

Question 4:

Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.


Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.

Question 5:

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.


“Pipelines have become the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances in India.” Supports the statement with examples.


Pipelines are the most convenient mode of transport for any liquid goods like petroleum and gas. It is a cheap means of transport and can be laid through difficult terrains, dense forests, deserts and high mountains. It involves low energy consumption. But it has more disadvantages in comparison with advantages.
Its disadvantages are :

  1. It is not flexible.
  2. Its capacity cannot be increased once ‘it is laid’.
  3. Maintaining the security of pipeline is difficult.
  4. Underground pipes cannot be repaired easily.
  5. The detection of leakage is also difficult.
Question 6:

What do you mean by communication?


Communication is an activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages or information by speech, visual, writing or behaviour.

Question 7:

Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian Airlines in air transport of India.


Air transport is the fastest and costliest mode of transport. It has two units-Air India and Indian. For India, this mode of transport is important because of its large size and planned economic development. Large industrial and commercial centres are located at great distances, which require fast transport links. Further, air transport is also vital for linking India with other countries. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian air space. The authority manages 24 international and 85 domestic airports including 28 passenger terminals at defence airfields.

Question 8:

What are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.


The main means of transportation on land, water and air are : (a) Railways, (b) Roadways, (c) Airways, (d) Waterways and (e) Pipelines.
The following factors affect the development of means of transport in India :

  1. Physical factors. Railways and Roadways have developed in the Northern plains. The hilly areas have sparse railways as in Assam and Himalayas.
  2. Economic factors. Railways and Roads connect industrial commercial towns and ports: Rajasthan due to low economic development has less railways.
  3. Political factors. The British policy was to exploit Indian resources. So ports were connected with hinterlands.
Question 9:

Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.


India is a land of diverse culture and Indian Railways play a key role in not only meeting the transport needs of the country but also binding together dispersed areas and promoting national integration. Indian Railways has been the prime movers to the nation and has the distinction of being one of the largest railway systems of the world under a single management. Railways being the more energy efficient mode of transport are ideally suited for the movement of bulk commodities and for long distance travel. As compared to road transport, the railways has a number of intrinsic advantages. Railways are five to six times more energy efficient, four times more efficient in land use and significantly superior from the standpoints or environment impact and safety.

Railways being the prime infrastructural sector of the country needs to expand and develop to keep pace with the growth of Indian economy. The massive investment needed for the development of the railway system has not been fully available
Railways traverse through the length and breadth of the country covering 63,140 route kms as on 31.3.2002, comprising broad gauge (45,099 kms), meter gauge (14,776 kms) and narrow gauge (3.265 krns). As the principal constituent of the nation's transport system, Indian Railways own a fleet of 2,16,717 wagons (units), 39,236 coaches and 7,739 number of locomotives and manage to run 14,444 trains daily, including about 8,702 passenger trains. They carry more than a million tonne of freight traffic and about 14 million passengers covering 6,856 number of stations daily.

Railways have to perform the dual role of commercial organization ad vehicle for fulfillment of social obligations. In national emergency, railways have been in the forefront in rushing relief material to disaster stricken regions. The Indian Railway system is managed through zones and operating divisions. There are also six production units engaged in manufacturing rolling stock, wheels and axles and other ancillary components to meet Railways' requirements.

Question 10:

Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.


In India, the growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport is rooted in following reasons:

  1. Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines;
  2. Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography;
  3. Road transport can economically carry few persons and relatively small amount of goods.
  4. Cost of loading and unloading is much lower in case of road transport, because it provides door-to-door service.
  5. Road transport also supplements the other modes of transportation. It provides link between 32railway stations and airports and their hinterlands.