NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 - Water Resources

Question 1:

Which one of the following types describes water as a resource?

  1. Abiotic resource
  2. Non-renewable Resources
  3. Biotic Resource
  4. Cyclic Resource

(d) Cyclic Resource

Question 2:

Which one of the following rivers has the highest replenishable ground water resource in the country?

  1. The Indus
  2. The Brahmaputra
  3. The Ganga
  4. The Godavari

(c) The Ganga

Question 3:

The highest proportion of the total water used in the country is in which one of the following sectors?

  1. Irrigation
  2. Industries
  3. Domestic use
  4. None of the above

(d) None of the above

Question 4:

It is said that the water resources in India have been depleting very fast. Discuss the factors responsible for depletion of water resources.


It is said that the water resources in India have been depleting very fast. Discuss the factors responsible for depletion of water resources.

  1. The availability of water per person is decreasing.
  2. The use of water is increasing due to increasing population.
  3. Water resources are being used in Industrial Sector at a fast rate.
  4. Water is used for irrigation to increase the agricultural productivity.
  5. Water pollution is increasing.
Question 5:

What factors are responsible for the highest groundwater development in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu?


The groundwater development is highest in Punjab and Haryana due to agricultural development. For cultivation of Wheat and Rice, irrigation is necessary. Due to Green Revolution, groundwater is used in large quantity. About 75% of net sown area is irrigated.

Question 6:

Why the share of agricultural sector in total water used in the country is expected to decline?


In future, the use of water is increasing in Industrial and Household sectors. Its result will be that the share of agricultural sector in total water used will decline.

Question 7:

What can be the possible impacts of consumption of contaminated / unclean water on the people?


Due to use of contaminated water, some diseases are caused like cough, bronchitis, diarrhoea, trachoma, intenstinal worms, hepatitis, etc. World Bank and WHO data show that one-fourth of communicable diseases of India are water borne.

Question 8:

Discuss the availability of water resources in the country and factors that determine its spatial distribution.


Availability of Surface Water Resources. There are four major sources of surface water. Sources of surface water :

These are rivers, lakes, ponds and tanks. (i) In the country, there are about 10,360 rivers and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each. (ii) The mean annual flow in all the river basins in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km. (iii) However, due to topographical, hydrological and other constraints, only about 690 cubic km. (32 per cent) of the available surface water can be utilised.

Factors for Distribution.

  1. Rainfall. Water flow in a river depends on the size of its catchment area or river basin and rainfall within its catchment area.
  2. Variability. Precipitation in India has very high spatial variation, and it is mainly concentrated in Monsoon season.
  3. Rivers. Some of the rivers in the country like the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge catchment areas. These rivers, although account for only about one-third of the total area in the country, have 60 per cent of the total surface water resources.
  4. Seasonal Rivers. Much of the annual water flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.
Question 9:

The depleting water resources may lead to social conflicts and disputes. Elaborate it with suitable examples?


Water is a natural and renewable resource. It plays a vital role in the economy of a country. Water resources are continuously declining.
Water disputes :

Due to sharing and control of these scarce resources, many tensions, disputes and contesting issues have arisen between States such as:

  1. The sharing of waters of rivers of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh is a contesting issue.
  2. Since long, the dispute is going on between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka over the waters of Kaveri River.
  3. The sharing of waters of Narmada Basin is a dispute between the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
Question 10:

What is Watershed Management? Do you think it can play an important role in sustainable development?


Explain how watershed management and rainwater harvesting are the methods of efficient management and conservation of surface water resources in India.


Watershed Management. Watershed Management basically refers to the efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources.

Method. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through various methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc.

Aims. (i) However, in a broad sense watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources—natural (like land, water, plants, and animals) and human within a watershed.

(ii) Watershed Management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on one hand and society on the other.

(iii) The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.

Programmes. The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programmes in the country. Some of these are being implemented by non-governmental organisations also. (1) Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

(2) Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) Programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and (3) Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc. through people’s participation. Tamil Nadu has made water-harvesting structures in the houses compulsory. No building can be constructed without making structures for water-harvesting.

Watershed development projects in some areas have been successful in rejuvenating environment and economy. However, there are only a few success stories. In majority of cases, the programme is still in its nascent stage. There is a need to generate awareness regarding benefits of watershed development and management among people in the country, and through this integrated water resource management approach, water availability can be ensured on sustainable basis.