Match the following :
- Socio-religious identity leading to statehood.
- Linguistic identity and tensions with centre.
- Regional imbalance leading to demand for statehood.
- Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity.
1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a)
Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate national existence. On the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the states where these expressions are prominently found.
- Assam — Movement against outsider.
- Meghalaya — Movement for greater autonomy.
- Mizoram — Movement for Separate State.
What were the main provisions of the Punjab Accord ? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighbouring states ?
Akali Dal is a regional party and holds a prominent place in Punjab politics. It is the only organisation representing the Sikhs. Punjab was reorganised on the basis of language on 1 November 1966 and so the aim of Akali Dal to have Punjabi Suba was achieved. But Akali Dal was not happy as some Punjabi speaking areas were included in Haryana and Chandigarh was declared a Union Territory.
Sant Fateh Singh again started agitation to include Chandigarh and Punjabi speaking areas in Punjab. During 1970 a section of Akalis began to demand political autonomy for the region. In June 1984, Mrs. Indira Gandhi carried out ‘Operation Blue Star’ code name for army action in the Golden Temple. Mrs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 outside her residence by her Sikh bodyguards. In Delhi and in many other parts of northern India violence took place against the Sikh community. More than two thousand Sikhs were killed in Delhi only. After the death of Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India. In July 1985 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi reached an agreement with Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal. This agreement is known as the Rajiv Gandhi–Longowal Accord or the Punjab Accord. The aim of the Punjab Accord was to bring normalcy in Punjab. Main provisions of Punjab Accord were as follow :
- Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
- To resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana, a commission would be established.
- A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi–Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- Armed Forces Special Powers Act in Punjab would be withdrawn.
- Those who are affected by militancy in Punjab would be given better treatment.
Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial ?
During the 1970s a section of Akalis began to demand political autonomy for Punjab. In 1973 Akalis passed a resolution at their conference at Anandpur Sahib, in which demand for political autonomy was made. Anandpur Sahib resolution, as such constitutes a statement of the main principles, policies and programme of the Akali Dal.
Anandpur Sahib resolution became controversial because resolution was passed in Gurmukhi Script. Resolution was not very clear because some words can be interpreted in more than one ways. This confusion was made worst by different interpretations given by the leaders of various political shades and at times by the leaders of the Akali Dal itself. For moderates this resolution means merely more autonomy for Punjab, whereas for some leaders it was a way of securing sovereignty for Punjab.
Anandpur Sahib resolution spoke of the aspiration of the Sikh Qaum and declared its goal as attaining the bolbala, i.e. dominance of the Sikh. However, this resolution has a very limited appeal among the Sikh masses.
Explain the internal divisions of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to Multiple regional aspirations in that state.
What is the Social and Political Composition of Jammu and Kashmir? Describe the roots of ‘Kashmir issue’ which compelled the Indian Government to maintain autonomy in this state.
Kashmir issue is a major issue of tension between India and Pakistan. The accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India was brought into being on 26 Oct. 1949. Article 370 was included in the Indian Constitution in order to satisfy the political aspiration of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Article 370 gives special status to Jammu and Kashmir. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has its own constitution, separate flag and separate law of citizenship. Article 370 is very important for the people of Jammu and Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political region, i.e. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. Kashmir Valley is the heart of Kashmir region and this region is dominated by Muslim Kashmiri. Hindu Kashmiris are in a minority in Kashmir region. Jammu region is dominated by Hindu and Muslims are in minority. Various languages are spoken in Jammu region. The Ladakh region is mountainous and population of this region is very small. The population of this region is almost equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims.
Separatist politics which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989 has taken different form and is made of various strands. Firstly, there are some separatists who want Kashmir as an Independent state. Secondly, there are some separatist groups who want merger of Kashmir with Pakistan. Thirdly, there are many groups who want greater political autonomy for the people of Kashmir within the Indian Union.
The idea of political autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir has greatly affected the people of Jammu and Ladakh. The people of Jammu and Ladakh often make complaints of their backwardness and neglect. Therefore, they demand autonomy for Jammu and Ladakh regions within the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The demand for intrastate autonomy is as strong as the demand for state autonomy.
On 5–6 August 2019, Article 370 was abrogated from Indian constitution and Ladakh separated from J&K. Both J&K and Ladakh become Union territories. Therefor now in India there are 28 States and 8 Union territories.
What are the various positions on the issue of regional sutonomy for Kashmir ? Which of these do you think are justifiable ? Give reasons for your answer.
The State of Jammu and Kashmir comprises three distinct geographical units, i.e. Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 and thus Jammu and Kashmir became a part of India. The Maharaja offered to accede on three subjects. This issue has external and internal dimensions. It involves the issue of Kashmiri identity known as Kashmiriyat and the aspiration of the people of J & K for political autonomy. Kashmir’s representative made it clear in the Constituent Assembly that Kashmir’s association with India would be based only on the terms of the instrument of accession.
Article 370 is included in the Indian Constitution in order to satisfy the political aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Article 370 gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir till August 2019.
Two opposite Views — This special status to Jammu and Kashmir has provoked two opposite reactions. One view is that Article 370 should be scrapped and should be removed from the Constitution, whereas certain people favour retaining Article 370 in the Indian Constitution. Another view is that the ‘Autonomy’ conferred by Article 370 is not enough. Mostly Kashmiris are demanding ‘Restoration of Autonomy’ or ‘Greater State Autonomy’.
Which of the View is Justifiable ? In our opinion special status given to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 should be abrogated from Indian constitution.
Therefore, on 5–6 August 2019, Article 370 was abrogated from Indian constitution. Ladakh separated from J&K. Both J&K and Ladakh become Union territories. Therefor now in India there are 28 states and 8 union territories.
The Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Justify the Statement.
It is a hard fact that Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. This can be justified on the basis of following facts :
- The large scale migration into the North-East gave rise to a unique problem, i.e. the local people pitted against outsiders or migrants. In many states of North-East local people started political and social movements against the outsiders because outsiders not only affect their culture but also exploit the natural resources for their benefits.
- The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against ‘outsider’. The foreigners against whom this agitation was directed were mostly migrant workers who had come in search of jobs from Bangladesh. The main contention of the agitators was that unless the foreigners were checked the state would be swamped by immigrants and the cultural identity of the state would be lost.
- The Assamese felt that unless these foreign nationals are detected and deported they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into minority. Besides this, there were economic problems also due to foreigners. In Assam there was unemployment and poverty and Assamese considered foreigners responsible for economic problems.
- In 1979 the All Assam Students Union (AASU), not affiliated to any party, led anti-foreigner movement. Student agitators insisted that the poll should be held only after the foreigners' names are removed from the electoral rolls. They even prevented the candidates from filing their nominations.
- The agitators demanded that all outsiders who had entered the state after 1951 should be sent back. The movement tried to blockade the movement of trains and supply of oil from Assam to refineries in Bihar.
- Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi made serious efforts to solve the problems of foreigners. Negotiations took place in March 1985. In these talks AASU (All Assam Students Union) adopted a realist approach and ultimately an agreement was signed on 15 August 1985, by the Assam agitation leaders and Union Home Affairs Secretary. Under this agreement the base date for detention and deletion of names of foreigners was fixed as 1 January 1966. All the persons who came to Assam after 1 January 1966 and before 24 March 1971 were to be detected in accordance with the Foreigners Act, 1946. The names of all such persons were to be deleted from the voters list for ten years and thereafter these names were to be restored in the voters list. All foreigners who came to Assam on or after 25 March 1971 were to be detected and expelled. The agreement envisaged constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguard for the protection of the social, cultural and linguistic heritage of Assam. The Government agreed to take proper steps for the economic development of Assam.
Assam Assembly elections were held in December 1986. Assam Gana Parishad (AGP), a party formed by the leader of AASU and Assam Gana Sangram Parishad, emerged victorious and formed government under Prafulla Kumara Mahanta.
All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.
There is a great reality that all regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. The inhabitants of Mizo Hills in Assam demanded secession from the Indian Union and established Mizo National Front to get their demand conceded. The Mizos organised armed agitation and commenced guerilla warfare. The MNF was banned during Chinese aggression. The government keeping their aspirations in view decided to make Mizo hills area a Union Territory, which was inaugurated by the Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi on 21 January 1972. It was named Mizoram. However, Mizos headed by Laldenga were not satisfied with this arrangement. Ultimately in 1986, a peace agreement was signed between Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga. Under this agreement Mizoram was elevated from the status of a Union territory to be the 23rd state of India. Laldenga was made the Chief Minister of Mizoram.
Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree ? Give reasons.
We fully agree with the view expressed in this statement that regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of Unity with diversity. Following agruments support this view : 1. Regional Aspirations are part of Democratic System. India is a largest democratic country in the world. To make democratic system successful it is essential that India should deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis because expression of regional aspirations is not an abnormal phenomenon. Even in small countries peoples are having regional aspirations.
- Regional Aspirations are part of Democratic System. India is a largest democratic country in the world. To make democratic system successful it is essential that India should deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis because expression of regional aspirations is not an abnormal phenomenon. Even in small countries peoples are having regional aspirations.
- Best Way. Democratic negotiation is the best way to respond to regional aspirations. Suppression of regional aspirations is not in the interest of National Unity. For example, Mizoram problem was solved by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi through negotiations.
- Power Sharing. Regional aspiration can be fulfilled by sharing power. Every region should have an important role in deciding the destiny of the nation and to achieve this objective it is essential that regional parties or groups or leaders should share powers at the state level and even at the Centre.
- Regional Imbalance in Economic Development. Regional inbalance in economic development contributes to the feelings of regional discrimination. In India regional imbalance has encouraged regional movements. For example, Assam movement on the issue of foreign nationals is the result of regional imbalance. If some states economically developed rapidly and some states remain backward and poor, it leads to regional imbalance and inter-regional migration. People of backward states have lost faith in democracy and they follow the path of agitations, protests, movements, etc.
- Wisdom and Far-sightedness of the Makers of Constitution. Framers of Indian Constitution were not only wise but far-sighted also in dealing with problem of diversity. Federal system is adopted with flexibility. Moreover, special provisions are mentioned in the Constitution to satisfy the regional aspiration. We can conclude very safely that regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity.
Read the passage and answer the questions below : (Imp.)
One of the Hazarika’s songs ................... dwells on the Unity theme, the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same mother ................... Meghalaya went own way ................... Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another daughter ................... . The song ends with a determination to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the present day Assam ................... The Karbis and the Missing brothers and sisters are our dear ones ................... SANJIB BARUAH.
- Which Unity is the poet talking about ?
- Why were the States of North-East created separately out of the erstwhile state of Assam?
- Do you think that the same Theme of Unity could apply to all the regions of India ? Why ?
- The poet is talking of Unity of North-East. This region now consists of seven states also referred to as ‘seven sisters’.
- The states of North-East created separately
out of the earstwhile state of Assam due to the
- To maintain the cultural indentity of the people of particular area, demands for political autonomy arose when the non-Assamese felt that the Assam government was imposing Assamese language on them.
- These states were created for their economic development.
- In our opinion for the growth of nation it is essential that the same theme of Unity should also apply to all the regions of India.