NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 4 - Agriculture

Question 1:

What is agriculture?


The word ‘agriculture’ is derived from two Latin words ‘agri’ and ‘cultura’. ‘Agri’ means soil and ‘cultura’ means cultivation or tilling of soil. Agriculture thus refers to the cultivation of soil for growing crops and rearing of livestocks.

Question 2:

Name the factors influencing agriculture.


The factors which influence agriculture are:
(a) Relief (b) Soil conditions (c) Temperature (d) Rainfall

Question 3:

What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?


Shifting cultivation is mainly practised in the thickly forested areas. In this cultivation, a plot of land is cleared by felling trees and burning them. The ashes of these trees are mixed with the soil and crops are grown. Maize, Yarn, Potatoes and Cassava are the main crops grown in this type of cultivation.
When the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Main areas of this cultivation are:
Amazon basin, North-East India, parts of Southern Asia and tropical Africa. This cultivation is also known as ‘Slash and burn’ cultivation.
(a) It is not eco-friendly. (b) It is very destructive.
(c) It causes deforestation. (d) It can be a cause of soil erosion.

Question 4:

What is plantation agriculture?


It is a special type of commercial farming which requires large amount of labour, technical efficiency, very large estates and capital. In this type of agriculture, a simple crop of tea, rubber, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, banana or cotton is grown. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. A well-developed transport network is also required.
Tropical regions of the world are major plantation areas. Rubber in Malayasia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

Question 5:

Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.


Jute and Cotton are the major fibre crops.
Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost free days and bright sunshine for its growth. Black and alluvial soils are best for its cultivation. Jute is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. High temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate is required for its growth.

Question 6:

Horticulture means:


Growing of fruits and vegetables

Question 7:

Golden fibre refers to:



Question 8:

Leading producer of coffee:



Question 9:

Give Reason:
(i) In India, agriculture is a primary activity.


Agriculture is a primary activity in India. More than 75% of India’s population is living in villages and two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture. Agriculture provides raw material to many industries. It is the base of Indian economy. It has an important role in GDP.

Question 10:

Give Reason:
Different crops are grown in different regions.


Different crops require different types of soil and climatic conditions for growth. These requirements cannot be met at one place for all types of crops. For example: cotton is grown in black soil while alluvial soil is good for rice. Different regions have black and alluvial soil. Some crops like tea and jute require heavy rainfall, while cotton requires light rainfall. These climatic conditions are not possible in same area. So, different crops are grown in different regions.

Question 11:

Distinguish between the following:
(i) Primary activities and Tertiary activities.


Question 12:

Distinguish between the following:
Subsistence farming and Intensive farming.