Match the following:
1-(b), 2-(c), 3-(d), 4-(a)
James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.
Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
William Jones had great respect for ancient Indian culture. According to him, the glory that Indian civilisation had attained in the past was declining. He was of the view that if one wants to understand India, the discovery of sacred and legal texts of Indian culture are necessary as these texts are able to describe the actual ideas and laws of various ancient religions. The study of these texts is the only way of forming the basis of future development in India. By this way, the Indians will get to rediscover their own heritage and gain information about the lost glories of their past.
Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Both James Mill and Thomas Macaulay thought that European education was essential in India because Oriental education that prevailed in India was impractical and useless. They were of the view that Eastern knowledge was inferior to English education. According to them, scientific and technical education should be provided to Indians rather than poetry and sacred literature of the Orient. Macaulay felt that, in order to civilise Indians, Western education should be imparted for making them aware of the developments in Western sciences and philosophy.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Mahatma Gandhi was of the view that Western education lacked practicality and focussed more on written knowledge. Western education did not provide live experience and practical knowledge. According to him, education should develop the mind and soul of a person. For a person to be literate, he should not only know how to read and write but should also know a craft. People should learn to work with their hands and understand how different things operate. This would, in turn, help in the development of their minds and give practical knowledge.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?
Mahatma Gandhi believed that Western education was making Indians feel inferior from the others. Western civilisation was considered superior than Indian education which made Indians look down upon their own culture. Due to this, the Indians started admiring the Western system of education.