Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.
The newly independent nation of India faced several problems. The problem of resettling refugees, division of society on the basis of caste and feeding the growing population were a few challenges.
What was the role of the Planning Commission?
The government set up the Planning Commission in 1950 to help, design and execute suitable policies for economic development in India.
Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _________, ________ and_______ .
taxes, defence and foreign affairs
Subjects on the Concurrent List were _______ and ______.
Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a __________ model.
The death of ________ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.
At Independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.
The Constituent Assembly was made up of members from the Congress party.
In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.
The Second Five Year Plan focussed on the development of heavy industry.
What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics, we have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?
Dr Ambedkar meant that everyone has equal political rights in this country. Each one has the right to vote in India and everyone is equal in the eyes of the law. However, the socio-economic structures and policies in India are such that people are not equal.
After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
After independence, many Indian leaders were reluctant to divide the country on linguistic lines. They thought that this would hamper national unity and encourage regional sentiments. It will prove to be an obstacle in the growth of nationalist spirit and lead to divisiveness among the people of India.
Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence?
After Independence, English continued to be used in India as many Indian states did not know the Hindi language. Moreover, some states threatened to separate from the Indian Union if Hindi was imposed. English was seen as a common link among all the states and therefore, it continued to be a language for communication.
How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?
The formation of a new nation was a difficult task. It was aimed that India should become a modern, self-sufficient, developed and an industrialised nation. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to design economic policies and strategies through Five Year Plans. The Second Five Year Plan proposed a large-scale growth of heavy and basic industries like iron and steel. The building of dams was also initiated. India adopted a mixed-economy model of development which was based on a combination of public and private sectors for creating economic growth.
Who was Mira Behn? Find out more about her life and her ideas.
Mira Behn was actually a British woman who had stayed in India for most of her life. Her real name was Madeleine Slate. She was fascinated by Gandhi and his ideas. She closely associated with Gandhi in his struggle and stayed at his ashram. After Independence, she was appointed by the government to advise upon development of agriculture in the state of Uttar Pradesh. She began several community projects to prevent cutting of trees and floods in hilly areas. She has been awarded with the Padma Vibhushan medal for her selfless service.
Find out more about the language divisions in Pakistan that led to the creation of the new nation of Bangladesh. How did Bangladesh achieve independence from Pakistan?
At the time of its formation, Pakistan was divided into West and East Pakistan. West Pakistan mainly consisted of Urdu-speaking Muslims, while in East Pakistan, the Muslims spoke in Bengali. The Muslims in East Pakistan were not given their due share in administration. They were not given their basic rights as citizens. Slowly, a movement to free East Pakistan began to emerge, which was supported by India. India and Pakistan fought a war in 1971. Pakistan lost on 16th December, 1971, and the new country of Bangladesh was formed.
Imagine a conversation between a father and son in a Muslim family. After Partition, the son thinks it would be wiser for them to move to Pakistan while the father believes that they should continue to live in India. What would the father and the son say?
The father must have thought that India is a democratic country with scope for development. The son must have thought that Pakistan is an Islamic state where Muslims would be treated fairly. (Answers may vary.)
Discuss in your class, one advantage and one disadvantage today of the decision to keep English as a language of India.
The advantage of using English is that it a common language of communication irrespective of the region one comes from. The disadvantage of using English lies in its superiority over the Indian languages and over-reliance of people on English. People who do not know English are discriminated against, while the knowledge of Indian languages is not given much importance in our country. (Answers may vary.)
Discuss in your class whether Mira Behn was right in her view that science and machinery would create problems for human beings. You may like to think about examples of the effects of industrial pollution and deforestation on the world today.
Mira Behn was right in her view to some extent. The mindless use of technology has created an ecological imbalance and several problems for human race. The increasing pollution and environmental hazards have proved that uncontrolled use of scientific equipment has made it difficult for humans to survive. Most of us live in unhealthy surroundings. However, it is not to say that all developments in science and industry are bad. If development and use of resources is done wisely, we can avoid the degradation of the environment. (Answers may vary.)