NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 - Indian Crafts and Industries in the 19th-20th Century

Question 1:

What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?


All finely woven textiles, cotton clothes, printed cotton clothes and silk clothes had a large market in Europe.

Question 2:

What is jamdani?


Jamdani is a fine muslin (woven textile) consisting of decorative motifs woven on the loom with a mixture of cotton and gold thread, usually in grey and white. Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces were the two major centres for jamdani weaving.

Question 3:

What is bandanna?


It is a printed scarf produced through a method of tying and dying for head or the neck usually bright in colour.

Question 4:

Who are the Agarias?


The Agarias were a community of iron smelters in Central India.

Question 5:

The word chintz comes from the word _______ .



Question 6:

Tipu’s sword was made of _______ steel.



Question 7:

India’s textile exports declined in the _______ century.



Question 8:

How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?


(i) First of all, the European traders came to know about fine cotton cloth of India which was carried by Arab merchants to Mosul in today’s Iraq. Hence, the term muslin was originated.
(ii) The Portuguese arrived at Calicut in search of spices. They started trading in cotton textiles that they carried back with them along with the spices as ‘Calico’, which became the common name.
(iii) Pieces of printed cotton clothes called Chintz, Cossaes and Bandannas were demanded by the Europeans in bulk. The term Chintz was derived from Hindi word Chhint, which basically means a cloth having small and colourful flowery designs.
(iv) In the same way, bandanna originated from the word bandhna (Hindi word for tying) which referred to bright-coloured clothes produced through the method of tying and dying.

Question 9:

Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?


The British wool and silk producers were unable to compete with Indian textiles. As English producers wanted a safe and secure market, they prevented the entry of Indian textiles in England. Therefore' they protested against the import of Indian textiles in the early 18th century.

Question 10:

How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?


(i) Industrial revolution came in Europe and Britain itself started producing a lot of textile goods due to which export of Indian textiles declined.
(ii) Textile goods made in industries of Britain were very cheap and were of better quality as compared to Indian textiles. This is another reason for the decline of Indian textiles.
(iii) The European countries imposed heavy taxes on Indian textiles so that they could become more expensive. Gradually, their sale as well as export declined. In this way, the development of cotton industries in Britain affected the textile producers in India.

Question 11:

Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?


(i) One of the reasons of decline of Indian iron smelting industry in the 19th century was the passing of new forest laws by the British. As colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests, they were unable to find wood for charcoal. They were unable to collect wood without defying forest laws. So, many of them gave up their craft and took to other means of livelihood.
(ii) In some areas, the government allowed the people to enter the forests but they had to pay very high tax for every furnace they used. It reduced their income. Moreover, they faced new competition from British manufacturers. Therefore, the Indian iron smelting industry declined in the 19th century

Question 12:

What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?


The Indian textile industry faced the following problems in the early years of its development:
(i) The British started to export its cheap and good-quality textiles to India. The Indian textiles could not compete with cheap imported textiles from Britain.
(ii) Generally, the government supports its industries by imposing heavy duties on imports. It eliminates competition and protects newly-born industries. But, the colonial government in India refused to give such protection to local industries.

Question 13:

What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?


In its early days, TISCO faced stiff competition from the British steel manufacturers. After the First World War broke out in 1914, the British steel-producing companies had to meet the demands of war in Europe. Hence, the import of British steel to India suddenly declined. As a result, Indian railways looked towards TISCO for its supply of steel. The war continued for five years and TISCO had to produce carriage wheels and shells for the war. By 1919, 90% of steel manufactured by TISCO was being bought by the colonial government.

Question 14:

Why do you think the Act was called the Calico Act? What does the name tell us about the kind of textiles the Act wanted to ban?


Why do you think the Act was called the Calico Act? What does the name tell us about the kind of textiles the Act wanted to ban?

Question 15:

Where were the major centres of weaving in the late eighteenth century?


In late eighteenth century, the main centres of weaving were Dacca, Tanjore, Pulicat, Ahmedabad, Benares and Sanganer.

Question 16:

Read Sources 1 and 2.

What reasons do the petition writers give for their condition of starvation?


In Source 1, the petition writer is a weaver. He states that the colonial government abolished the aurangs (workshops) and he and his family members have become unemployed. He states that they do not know any other skill apart from weaving and if the Board of Trade stops giving them orders for cloth, they will starve.
In Source 2, the petition writer is a widowed spinner. She wrote that she spun yarn for the weavers and made a living. After the colonial government started importing a new type of yarn in Indian markets, the value of the custom-made yarn made by her fell. Moreover, the weavers no longer required her yarn due to which she has to struggle hard and fight starvation.

Question 17:

Why would the iron and steel making industry be affected by the defeat of the nawabs and rajas?


The iron and steel making industry which manufactured the swords and armour of nawabs and rajas declined after the British conquest of India. Moreover, the imports of iron and steel from England took over the market of iron and steel produced by the Indians. Therefore, the iron and steel making industry got severely affected by the defeat of the nawabs and rajas.