Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
In simple words, marginalisation means to be excluded from the main stream of the society due to
age-old social disparities, like the caste system, prejudices and discrimination on account of economic
and wealth status. These underprivileged groups of people are known as the marginalised groups.
Depressed classes are also known as marginalised sections of the society. In India, a large number of people have experienced marginalisation on account of the caste system.
List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised due to the following reasons:
(i) In order to make land for agriculture and industry, forest lands have been cleared.
(ii) Mines and mining projects have led to the displacement of many adivasis. It has caused the loss of their livelihood.
Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Indian Constitution provides safeguards to religions, ethnic and linguistic minorities. These safeguards are provided in the fundamental rights. The Constitution’s safeguards for protecting minority communities is very important. Moreover, safeguards are important because they protect the minorities against any discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, language, etc.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term ‘minority’?
Minority refers to a community that is small in number in relation to the rest of the population. For example, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, etc., are living in India. Hindus are in majority whereas Muslims, Christian, and Sikhs are in minorities. The minorities are vulnerable due to their inadequate share in power and decision-making.
You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter list two reasons that you would give.
Muslims are 14.6% per cent of India’s population and are considered to be a marginalised community
in India. Muslims are a marginalised community due to the following reasons:
(i) Muslims are economically backward and they have been deprived of economic development.
63.6% of Muslims live in Kuccha houses whereas 55.2 % of Hindus live in Kuccha houses.
(ii) 65% Hindus are literate whereas 59% Muslims are literate. The average years of schooling for Muslim children between the age of 7-16 is much lower than that of the other socio-religious communities.
Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalisation are interlinked?
It is a hard fact that economic and social marginalisation is interlinked. Without money, no person can get electricity connection. Money is needed to pay electricity bill and to purchase electronic goods. It is not possible to get water connection without money.
Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalised.
Groups may be marginalised due to the following reasons:
(i) They are fewer in number. (ii) They follow different traditions and cultures.
(iii) They speak different dialects and are poor.
Why was Dadu forced to leave his village in Odisha?
In the storyboard, Dadu was forced to leave his village in Odisha, as the companywallahs took his land, because they wanted to mine iron ore there.
Which metals are important in present-day India? Why? Where do they come from? Are there Adivasi populations there?
Metals like Iron-ore, aluminium, copper, bronze, etc., are important as they play an important part in the industries. These metals are found in the plateau of India. Yes, adivasi population reside in these parts.
Can you list two different provisions in the 1989 Act? Look up the glossary and write in your own words what you understand by the term ‘morally reprehensible’.
Two provisions in the 1989 Act are:
(i) Legal aid: Legal aid is available for all victims regardless of financial status. For all others, legal aid depends on the financial status.
(ii) Migration: On migration to another state, they lose their SC/ST status for affirmative actions, i.e. benefit of admission in educational institutes, reservation in government employment, etc., but the protection accorded under this Act stays.
What do you understand by manual scavenging?
Manual Scavengers are the people thought to be the most oppressed class in our country.
They perform menial tasks, like removing human excreta, etc. It is a caste-based occupation that continued for many centuries in both urban and rural areas.