Sandalwood is an example of:
- Evergreen forest
- Deciduous forest
- Deltaic forest
- Thorny forest
(a). Deciduous forest
Which one of the following was the purpose of Project Tiger?
- to kill tigers
- to put tigers in the Zoo
- to protect tigers from illegal hunting
- to make films on tigers
(c). to protect tigers from illegal hunting
In which one of the following states is the Nandadevi Biosphere reserve situated?
- Uttar Pradesh
How many Biosphere reserves from India are recognised by the UNESCO?
Which one of the following proportion of area of the country was targeted to be under forest in Forest Policy of India?
What is Natural Vegetation ? Under which climatic conditions tropical evergreen forests develop?
Natural vegetation refers to a plant community
that has been left undisturbed over a long time.
Different species adjust to climatic and soil conditions.
(i) Annual Rainfall is 200 cms.
(ii) Average annual temperature 22°C.
These climatic conditions are found in the equatorial region.
What do you mean by social forestry?
Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.
Define Biosphere reserves.
A Biosphere reserve is a unique ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are recognised by UNESCO.
What is the difference between forest area and forest cover?
Forest area and forest cover are different from each other. The forest area is the area notified and recorded as the forest land while the actual forest cover is the area occupied by forests. According to 2001 census, India has a forest cover of 20.55% but 12.6% are dense forests and 7.8% are open forests.
What steps have been taken up to conserve forests?
Forests have an intricate interrelationship
with life and environment. These provide numerous
direct and indirect advantages to our economy and
society. Hence, conservation of forest is of vital
importance to the survival and prosperity of
(a) Steps taken to conserve forests : The Government of India proposed to have a nation-wide forest conservation policy, and adopted a forest policy in 1952, which was further modified in 1988. The forest policy aimed at :
(i) bringing 33 per cent of the geographical areas under forest cover;
(ii) maintaining environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed;
(iii) conserving the natural heritage of the country, its biological diversity and genetic pool;
(iv) checks soil erosion, extension of the desert lands and reduction of floods and droughts;
(v) increasing the forest cover through social forestry and afforestation on degraded land;
(vi) increasing the productivity of forests to make timber, fuel, fodder and food available to rural population dependant on forests, and encourage the substitution of wood;
(vii) creating of a massive peoples movement involving women to encourage planting of trees, stop felling of trees and thus, reduce pressure on the existing forest.
(b) Social Forestry : Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.
The National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories. These are Urban forestry, Rural forestry and Farm forestry. Urban forestry pertains to the raising and management of trees on public and privately owned lands in and around urban centres such as green belts, parks, roadside avenues, industrial and commercial green belts, etc.
Rural forestry lays emphasis on promotion of agroforestry and community-forestry.
Agro-forestry is the raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land inclusive of the waste patches. It combines forestry with agriculture.
Community forestry involves the raising of trees on public or community land such as the village pasture and temple land, roadside, canal bank, strips along railway lines, and schools etc. It aims at providing benefits to the community as a whole.
(c) Farm Forestry : Farm forestry is a term applied to the process under which farmers grow trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes on their farm lands.
(d) Biosphere reserve : A Biosphere Reserve is an ecosystem with plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural interest. It is a title given by UNESCO to help protect the sites.
(e) Chipko movement: The Chipko Movement was started to discourage people from felling trees. People and villagers huged the trees in order to save them from being cut.
How can people’s participation be effective in conserving forests and wild life?
For people’s participation, social forestry is practised. In this programme, rural population and women are giving cooperation Agro-forestry is the raising of trees and crops on the same land. It helps in the production of food, fodder, fuel, timber and fruit. It involves planting of trees on public lands.