# NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 27 - Topographical Maps

##### Question 1:

What do you mean by ‘Topographical Maps’?

Topographical maps show the general topography of an area. These maps show the different features of physical and cultural environment. These are based on the actual survey of an area.
These are generally large scale maps. Their scale is large enough to show the detailed map of an area. These maps show different relief features, rivers, vegetation, lakes etc. These also show various cultural features like roads, railways, towns, villages, (settlements), canals and other man-made features. In India, survey of India prepares topographical maps for all parts of the country on different scales.

##### Question 2:

Name the organisation which prepares the topographical maps of India.

The Survey of India prepares the topographical maps of India.

##### Question 3:

Which are the commonly used scales for mapping our country used by the survey of India?

The scales used by the survey of India: The scale which are commonly used for mapping are like 1:1000000, 1:25,0000, 1:50000 and 1:25000 by survey of India.

##### Question 4:

What are contours?

Contours are imaginary lines which joins all places having the same height above mean sea level.

##### Question 5:

What does the spacing of contours indicate?

The vertical interval between two contours remains constant, the horizontal distance between the two varies place to place upon the nature of the slope. Contours are drawn different intervals such as 20, 50, 100 metres above the sea level it is spacing of contours.

##### Question 6:

What are conventional signs?

Various symbols and letters are used to show the different features on the topographical maps. These symbols are known as conventional signs. These symbols generally represent the features as these are similar to these. It has become a general practice (convention) to use these symbols on topographical maps. So these are called conventional signs. Some features cannot be shown according to the scale of the map. These features are shown with the help of conventional signs. The use of conventional signs is to make the map informative and legible.

##### Question 7:

Write short note on: Contours

Contour is the commonest, the most accurate and the most used method of showing relief. A contour is an imaginary line drawn on a map to join all the places of same height above meansea level. This height is shown by a figure written on the contour line. When the contours are close together, these show a steep-slope. But when the contours are wide apart, these show a gentle slope. The difference in the height between one contour and the next is called vertical interval (V.I.). The horizontal distance between two successive contours is called the horizontal equivalent (H.E.).

##### Question 8:

Write short note on: Marginal Information in Topographical sheets.

The general information about the given Toposheet is as under:
(i) Name of the Toposheet : Ajmer (Pali and Udaipur districts)
(ii) Number of Toposheet : 45 J/8
(iii) Scale : 1′′ : 2 miles
(iv) Latitudinal extent : 26°N latitude —to 26° 15′ N
(v) Longitudinal extent : 74° 15′ East to 74° 30′ East
(vi) Area : about 300 sq. miles
(vii) Year of Publication : Year 1953
(viii) North : Magnetic North was 1/4° W from True North.
(ix) V.I. : 50 feet
(x) Year of Survey : 1929-30

##### Question 9:

Write short note on: The Survey of India

The Survey of India is India’s central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying set up in 1767 to help consolidate the territeries of the British East India company. It is one of the oldest Engineering Departments of the Government of India. The Survey of India uses seven standard colours to depict the distributional pattern of land used on topographic patterns like Red colour, Yellow, Green, Blue, Black, Brown and Grey colours.

##### Question 10:

Explain what is meant by map interpretation and what procedure is followed for its interpretation.

Description of features shown on map is only a prelude to map interpretation the letter involves a study of the factors that serve to explain the casual relationship among several features shown on a map.
The procedure is followed in the common headings under which the map is interpreted are:
1. Marginal Information 2. Relief features
3. Cultural features
1. Marginal Information: The information which are printed on the margins of the toposheets are called marginal information or Primary Information. There informations include:
(i) The number of sheet and name of the region.
(ii) Extent of the region in latitues and longitudes.
(iii) Directions
(iv) The contour interval
(v) The key.
2. Relief features: To study the relief features of the given toposheet, we should take an eye survey of the entire area and make the various physical features depicted on the toposheet are to be printed out. the gap between is to be marked and average heights are to be measured.
(a) Drainage Pattern: To study the drainage patterns of the toposheet, the major rivers and their tributaries are to be noted. Their catchment area to be marked. U-shaped and V-shaped valleys are to be blentified.
(b) Natural Vegetation: With the careful study of the given toposheet, determine the types of forests and trees and mention whether they are evergreen deciduous, broad leave or coniferous. The distribution pattern of natural vegetation is also to be noted.
3. Cultural features: These features include the study of land use and occupation, transport and human settlements.
(a) The land use and occupation are not depicted on the toposheet, yet they can easily be deducted from the study of physical features depicted on the toposheet.
(b) Means of transport and communication: These can be easily studied with the help of the conventional symbols or the key of the toposheet.
(c) Human Settlements: The study of human settlements through light on the land use and occupation of the people is done. The urban centre are to be noted. What are their size and for what are they famous. As concern the rural settlements, you have to note the distribution pattern of human settlements. They may be circular or scattered.

##### Question 11:

Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions. Name the geographical feature formed by contours.

Plateau is the geographical feature formed by the given contours.

##### Question 11:

Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions. Find out the contour interval in the map.

The contour interval is 10 m.

##### Question 12:

Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions.
Find out the map distance between E and F and convert it into ground distance.

The map distance between E and F is 1.8 cm. The ground distance of E and F is 3.6 km (Scale 1cm = 2 km)

##### Question 13:

Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions.
Name the type of slope between A and B, C and D and E and F.

Slope between A and B is gentle, C and D is steep and E and F is gentle and convex.

##### Question 14:

Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions.
Find out the direction of E, D and F from G.

The direction of E is north-west, D is north and F is south-west.

##### Question 15:

Convert 1:50,000 into a statement scale.

1:50,000 or 1cm = 50,000cm or 1 cm = 1.5 km (1cm =1, 00,000 km)

##### Question 16:

Name the major settlement of the area.

Kachhwa is the major settlement of the area.

##### Question 17:

What is the direction of flow of the river Ganga?

The river Ganga is flowing from the northwest to south-east direction.

##### Question 18:

At which one of the banks of river Ganga, Bhatauli is located?

Bhatauli is located on the right bank of river Ganga.

##### Question 19:

What is the pattern of rural settlement along the right bank of river Ganga?

The settlement pattern in the right bank is scattered.

##### Question 20:

Name the villages/settlements where Post Office is located?

Post Office is located in Bhatauli, Upadhia, Prem ka Pura, Baroini.

##### Question 21:

What does the yellow colour in the area refer to?

Yellow colour represents cultivated area.

##### Question 22:

What means of transportation is used to cross the river by the people of Bhatauli village?

Ferry boats are the means of transportation used to cross the river by the people of Bhatauli village.

##### Question 23:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions.
Give the height of the highest point of the map.

208 m (spot height) is the highest point of the map.

##### Question 24:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. River Jamtihwa Nadi is flowing through which quarter of the map?

River Jamtihwa Nadi is flowing through southeast quarter of the map.

##### Question 25:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. Which is the major settlement located in the east of the Kuardari Nala?

Danti is the major settlement located in the east of the Kuardari Nala.

##### Question 26:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. What type of settlement does the area have?

The area has linear type of settlement.

##### Question 27:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. Name the geographical feature represented by white patches in the middle of Sipu Nadi.

The geographical feature represented by white patches in the middle of Sipu Nadi is dry river channels.

##### Question 28:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. Name the two types of vegetation shown on the part of the topographical sheet.

Palmyra and Bamboo plantation are the two types of vegetation shown on the part of the topographical sheet.

##### Question 29:

Study the extract from the topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure on page 68 and answer the following questions. What is the direction of flow of the Kuardari?