NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 - An Empire Across Three Continents

Question 1:

If you had lived in the Roman Empire, where would you rather have lived—in the towns or in the countryside? Explain why?


If I had lived in Roman Empire then I would have lived in towns because of the following three reasons:

  1. There was no scarcity of food items in towns.
  2. Better facilities were available in towns as compared to countryside even during famines.
  3. Better means of enjoyment were available in towns.
Question 2:

Imagine that you are a Roman housewife preparing a shopping list for household requirements. What would be on the list?


Wheat, Barley, Beans, Lentils, various kinds of pulses, wine, etc.

Question 3:

Why do you think the Roman government stopped coining in silver? And which metal did it begin to use for the production of coinage?


Silver was extracted from mines to mint silver coins. But these mines were exhausted and there was no stock of silver left with the government to support a stable coinage in silver. That is why Roman government started to mint gold coins.

Question 4:

Suppose the emperor Trajan had actually managed to conquer India and the Romans had held on to the country for several centuries. In what ways do you think India might be different today?


If the Romans had held on to India for several centuries, India might be different today in the following ways :

  1. There might be aristocracy in India in place of democracy.
  2. Christianity might be the state religion.
  3. Slavery system might have prevailed in the country.
  4. Besides Indian languages, languages like Latin and Greek might be spoken in the country.
  5. The countryside might be administered by cities.
  6. There might be changes in art and architecture of the country.
  7. Indians might worship Roman gods and goddesses such as Jupiter, Juno, etc., along with Indian gods and goddesses.
  8. Society might be divided into patricians, plebians and slaves.
Question 5:

Go through the chapter carefully and pick out some basic features of Roman society and economy which you think make it look quite modern.


Some basic features of the Roman Society:

  1. Society was divided into upper, middle and lower classes.
  2. There was widespread prevalence of the nuclear family.
  3. Women retained full rights in their father’s property. They could own and manage property.
  4. There was vast diversity of religious cults and local dieties, the plurality of languages that were spoken, the styles of dress and costume, the food people ate and their form of social organisation.
  5. The king could not act arbitrarily.
  6. People made an active use of the law for protection of their rights.

Some basic features of the Roman Economy :

  1. The empire had a substantial economic infrastructure of harbours, mines, brickyards, etc.
  2. Roman trade was prosperous.
  3. Galilee was densely cultivated.
  4. Level of productivity was very high.
  5. There was an organised commercial and banking system and money was used widely.