NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 1 - From the Beginning of Time

Question 1:

Look at the diagram below showing the positive feedback mechanism. Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that were strengthened by tool making?

  1. The inputs that went into tool making :
    1. Increase in size and capacity of brain.
    2. Hands freed for using tools and carrying infants, objects.
    3. Upright walking.
    4. Visual surveillance, long distance while foraging and hunting.
  2. The processses that were strengthened by tool making :
    1. Upright walking.
    2. Visual surveillance, long distance walking while foraging and hunting.
    3. Increase in size and capacity of brain.
Question 2:

Humans and mammals such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans possibly evolved from apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of (a) behaviour and (b) anatomy. Are there any differences that you think are noteworthy?



Question 3:

Discuss the arguments advanced in favour of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.


Question 4:

Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record : (a) gathering (b) toll making, (c) the use of fire


Tool making.

Question 5:

Discuss the extent to which (a) hunting and (b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language. What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?


Hunting and constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language to a great extent. Language helped people to share techniques and knowledge of hunting and constructing shelters.

(a) Hunting :

  1. People could make a plan for hunting.
  2. They could discuss the modes and techniques of hunting with each other.
  3. They could get information about abundance of animals in different regions.
  4. They could discuss nature of animals
  5. They could improve tools and weapons used for hunting.
  6. They could discuss how to use different parts of body of a killed animal.

(b) Constructing shelter :

  1. People could get information about available materials used in constructing shelters.
  2. They could discuss safe places for constructing shelters.
  3. They could discuss facilities available near a shelter.
  4. They could share with each other the techniques of constructing shelters.

Other modes. The other modes of communication used for these activities could have been signs and symbols, paintings and engravings.

Question 6:

Choose any two developments each from timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why you think these are significant.


(a) Two Developments from Timeline 1:

  1. The first homonids emerged on the earth’s surface about 5-6 million years ago. They evolved from homonoids and both had certain common features. But certain major differences were also there between both of them. Homonids had a larger brain than that of homonoids. Homonoids were quadruped and walked on all four but they had flexible forelimbs. On contrary to it, homonids had an upright posture and they walked on two feet. There were also quite differences in the hand which helped them in the making and use of tools.
  2. Ice age or glaciation came into being around 2.5 million years ago. Large parts of the earth were covered with snow. It brought major changes in the climate and vegetation of the earth. There was a reduction in temperatures as well as in rainfall. That is why forests were reduced and there was an expansion of grassland areas. It led to gradual extinction of early forms of Australopithecus because they were adapted to live in forests. They were replaced by those species which were better adapted to drier conditions. These species included the representatives of the genus Homo.

(b) Two Developments from Timeline 2 :

  1. The evolution of the voice box took place around 200,000 years ago. It gave power of speech to man. Now it was possible for man to speak and to express his views. It also helped in the development of new techniques of making tools, hunting and other activities.
  2. Sewing needles were invented about 21,000 years ago. This invention was very helpful for early humans. Now it was possible for him to sew fur of animals and wear it as clothes. It provided him warmth and protected him from the cold weather.