What were the features of the livesof the Bedouins in the early seventh century?
The Bedouins were Arab tribes. They were nomadic and moved from dry to green areas in search of food and fodder for their camels. Some of them settled in cities and practised trade or agriculture.
What is meant by the term ‘Abbasid revolution’?
A movement called ‘dawa’ thrown away the Umayyad dynasty in Arab. It was replaced by another dynasty, the Abbasids, in 750 CE. This event is given the name of the Abbasid Revolution.
Give examples of the cosmopolitan character of the states set up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks.
- The Arab Empire was inhabited by people of Muslim, Christian and Jewish cultures.
- In the Iranian Empire, Muslim and Asian cultures developed.
- In the Turk Empire, Egyptian, Iranian, Syrian and Indian cultures developed.
What were the effects of the Crusades on Europe and Asia?
What was the impact of the Crusades on Christian–Muslim relations?
- The Muslim states began to adopt a harsher attitude towards their Christian subjects.
- There was a great increase in the influence of Italian mercantile communities in the trade between the East and the West.
- Power of European feudal lords decreased and there was decline of Feudalism in Europe. It helped in the emergence of the Nation-States.
How were Islamic architectural forms different from those of the Roman Empire?
Roman Architectural Forms. Romans were skilled-architects. They introduced archs and domes in architecture. Their buildings had two or three storeys. In these buildings, archs were constructed one on the other. Their archs were round in shape. These archs were used in building city gates, bridges, big buildings and victory monuments. Archs were used even in building collagium. There gladiator competitions were held. These archs were also used in constructing canals.
Islamic Architectural Forms. Islamic architectural forms were influenced by Iranian art. But Arabs discovered original specimens of decoration. Their buildings included round domes, minarets, horse hoofshaped archs and curved pillars. Features of Islamic architecture can be seen in Arab’s mosques, libaries, palaces, hospitals and schools.
Describe a journey from Samarqand to Damascus, referring to the cities on the route.
Samarqand was located in the North east of the Islamic state and Damascus was situated in the centre (Syria). A traveller journeying from Samarqand to Damascus had to pass through the cities of Merv, Nishapur, Samarra, etc.