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The “Citizenship” chapter of Political Science Class 11 discuss topics such as the political idea of citizenship, universal citizenship, the concept of global citizenship, aspects of single and dual citizenship, rights granted to migrants and citizens, and much more.
Citizenship as full and equal membership of a political community involves both rights and obligations. Which rights could citizens expect to enjoy in most democratic States today? What kind of obligation will they have to their State and fellow citizens?
Citizenship is a legal relationship that binds an individual to the State of which he is a member. Citizenship as full and equal membership of a political community, i.e., state involves both rights and obligations. The rights granted to citizens vary from State to State. However, in most democratic countries the rights enjoyed by the citizens are as follows : Right to equality, Right to liberty, Right to freedom of speech and expression, Right to education, Right to vote, Right to contest election, Right to freedom of movement, etc. Citizens enjoyed not only rights but they also have certain obligations. One of the basic obligations of citizenship is that disputes should be settled by negotiations and discussions rather than force. The citizen should pay his/her taxes regularly and must be ready to render all possible services to the community. He should be ready to suffer for his country.
All citizens may be granted equal rights but all may not be able to equally exercise them. Explain.
Full and equal citizenship means that all citizens, rich or poor, should be given equal rights. Generally in all the democratic countries, citizens are given equal rights. The Indian Constitution unequivocally declared that rights contained in Part III of the Constitution are to be enjoyed by all the citizens of India. However, all citizens are not able to equally exercise them because all citizens are not equally competent.
Write a short note on any two struggles for full enjoyment of the citizen rights, which have taken place in India in recent years. Which rights were being claimed in each case?
Though Indian Constitution adopted an essentially democratic and inclusive notion of citizenship, yet these provisions have given rise to struggles and movements. After independence, women started movements and their main demand was equal rights for both men and women. Women demanded equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Dalit movement also demanded social justice.
What are some of the problems faced by refugees? In what ways could the concept of global citizenship benefit them?
After the Second World War, many countries of the world faced refugee problems. India attained freedom on 15th August 1947, but it was partitioned at the same time. Due to partition, India faced a very big problem of refugees. Refugees generally faced the following problems :
- Problem of shelter
- Problem of food
- Problem of clothes
- Problem of settlement
- Problem of citizenship, rights, etc.
The concept of global citizenship can be very helpful in solving certain problems of refugees.
Migration of people to different regions within the country is often resisted by the local inhabitants. What are some of the contributions that the migrants could make to the local economy?
In a modern democratic state like India, right to freedom of movement is given to the citizens. All the citizens of India have the right to reside and settle in any part of India. Generally, unskilled workers migrate from one region to another. Lakhs of people have migrated from Bihar to Punjab. Even skilled workers and specialists, engineers, etc., also shifted to big cities, i.e., Mumbai, Bangalore, etc. However, when there is a shortage of jobs, accommodation, water, etc., then demand is made by the local residents to restrict the entry of outsiders.
‘‘Democratic citizenship is a project rather than an accomplished fact even in countries like India, which grants equal citizenship.’’ Discuss some of the issues regarding citizenship being raised in India today.
- Issue of citizenship to N.R.I.
- Issue of Women movement.
- Issue of Dalit Movement.