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“Election and Representation” chapter of Class 11 Political Science covers crucial topics which include types of elections, election system in India, methods of elections, free and fair elections, various political bodies, reservation of constituencies, elections, electoral reforms, democracy, etc.
Which of the following resembles most a direct democracy?
- Discussions in a family meeting
- Election of the class monitor
- Choice of a candidate by a political party
- Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha
(d) Decisions taken by the Gram Sabha
Which of the following tasks are not performed by the Election Commission?
- Preparing the Electoral rolls
- Nominating the candidates
- Setting up polling booths
- Supervising the Panchayat elections
Options b and d
Which of the following is common to the method of election of the members of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha?
- Every citizen above the age of 18 years is an eligible voter.
- Voter can give preference order for different candidates.
- Every vote has equal value.
- The winner must get more than half the votes.
(a) Every citizen above the age of 18 years is an eligible voter.
In the First Past the Post system, that candidate is declared the winner who:
- Secures the largest number of postal ballots
- Belongs to the party that has highest number of votes in the country
- Has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency
- Attains first position by securing more than 50% votes
(c) Has more votes than any other candidate in the constituency
What is the difference between the system of reservation of constituencies and the system of separate electorate? Why did the Constitution makers reject the latter?
In a system of reservation of constituency, a particular constituency is reserved for a particular community. But, all citizens of that constituency enjoy Right to vote and participate in the election. This system is also known as joint election system. In a separate electorate system, seats are reserved for Muslims, Christians, etc., and a Muslim voter votes for the Muslim candidates only. Separate electorates for the Muslims was introduced under the Morley- Minto Reforms Act of 1909. The introduction of communal electorates was ultimately responsible for the partition of India. The Constitution makers rejected the separate electorate system because it divided the people on the basis of their religion. In place of separate electorate system, joint electorate system with reservation of seats was adopted under the new Constitution. The Constitution provides for the reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. At present, out of 543 elected members of Lok Sabha, 84 are reserved for Scheduled Castes and 47 are reserved for Scheduled Tribes.
Which of the following statements are incorrect? Identify and correct them by substituting, adding or rearranging only one word or phrase.
- FPTP system is followed for all the elections in India.
- Election Commission does not supervise Panchayat and Municipal elections.
- President of India cannot remove an Election Commissioner.
- Appointment of more than one Election Commissioners in the Election Commission is mandatory.
- First Past the Post System is followed for all the elected seats of Lok Sabha.
- Election Commission supervises the elections to the Parliament and legislatures of states.
- President of India can remove an Election Commissioner when 2/3rd majority of the Parliament passed a resolution for his removal.
- Appointment of more than one Election Commissioners in the Election Commission is not mandatory.
Indian electoral system aims at ensuring representation of socially disadvantaged sections. However we are yet to have even 10 per cent women members in our legislatures. What measures would you suggest to improve the situation?
The women constitute about fifty per cent of the population, but women’s representation in the Parliament and State Legislatures is very less. To improve the situation, following suggestions should be implemented:
- 33 per cent of the seats of Parliament and State Legislatures should be reserved for women.
- Political consciousness should be created among women so that more women participate in the election.
- All political parties should try to create an atmosphere that would encourage women’s participation in politics and their representation in Parliament and State Legislatures.
Here are some wishes expressed in a conference to discuss a Constitution for a new country. Write against each of these whether FPTP or Proportional Representation system is more suited to meet each of these wishes.
- People should clearly know who is their representative so that they can hold him or her personally accountable.
- We have small linguistic minorities who are spread all over the country; we should ensure fair representation to them.
- There should be no discrepancy between votes and seats for different parties.
- People should be able to elect a good candidate even if they do not like his or her political party.
- First Past the Post System is more suitable.
- Proportional Representation System is more suitable to give representation to linguistic minorities.
- Proportional Representation is more suitable.
- FPTP is more suitable to elect a good candidate.
A former Chief Election Commissioner joined a political party and contested elections. There are various views on this issue. One view is that a former Election Commissioner is an independent citizen and has a right to join any political party and to contest election. According to the other view, leaving this possibility open can affect the impartiality of the Election Commission. So, former Election Commissioners must not be allowed to contest any elections. Which position do you agree with and why?
Former Election Commissioners should not be
allowed to contest any election. If he is allowed, it will
certainly affect his impartiality.
To ensure free and fair elections, former Election Commissioners must not be allowed to contest any election.
“Indian democracy is now ready to shift from a crude First Past the Post system to a system of Proportional Representation.” Do you agree with this statement? Give your reasons for or against this statement.
In our opinion, Indian democracy is not ready to adopt a system of proportional representation due to following reasons:
- The system of proportional representation is very complex. An ordinary person cannot understand this system very easily. It is difficult to determine the quota, to mark preference on the vote and to count the votes. Most Indian people are illiterate.
- The system of proportional representation is harmful for national unity. It will encourage small political parties because they are certain about getting representation in the legislature.
- The system of proportional representation is not suitable for a big country like India. In India, the number of voters is more than 90 crores. Hence, it is very difficult to follow this system of election because it is almost impossible to transfer crores of votes from one candidate to another candidate.