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“The Executive” chapter of Class 11 Political Science teaches concepts like permanent executive: parliamentary executive and bureaucracy in India, different types of executives (Prime Minister, Vice President, President, Ministers, etc); functions performed by different executives, etc.
A Parliamentary executive means:
- Executive where there is a Parliament
- Executive elected by the Parliament
- Where the Parliament functions as the executive
- Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the Parliament
(d) Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the Parliament
Read this dialogue. Which argument do you agree with? Why?
- Amit: Looking at the constitutional provisions, it seems that the President is only a rubber stamp.
- Shama: The President appoints the Prime Minister. So, he must have the power to remove the Prime Minister as well.
- Rajesh: We don’t need a President. After the election, the parliament can meet and elect a leader to be the Prime Minister.
We fully agree with the view expressed by Amit. Indian President is a constitutional head. India has adopted a Parliamentary form of government and the essence of the parliamentary form of government is that the head of the State is a titular head, a Constitutional head.
Match the following:
- Works within the particular state in which recruited
- Works in any Central government office located either at the National Capital or elsewhere in the country
- Works in a particular state to which allotted; can also be sent on deputation to the Centre
- Works in Indian missions abroad
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a)
Identify the ministry which may have released the following news items. Would this be a ministry of the Central government or the State government? Why?
- An official release said that in 2004–2005, the Tamil Nadu Textbooks Corporation would release new versions for standards VII, X and XI.
- A new railway loop line by passing the crowded Thiruvallur-Chennai section to help iron ore exporters. The new line, likely to be about 80 km long, will branch off at Puttur and then reach Athipattu near the port.
- The three-member sub-divisional committee formed to verify suicide by farmers in Ramayampet mandal has found that the two farmers who committed suicide this month have had economic problems due to failure of crops.
- Education Ministry of Tamil Nadu
- Railway Ministry of the Central Government
- Agriculture Ministry of the State Government
While appointing the Prime Minister, the President selects:
- Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabh
- Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha
- The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha
- Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha
(d) Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha
Read this discussion and say which of these statements applies most to India.
- Alok: Prime Minister is like a king, he decides everything in our country.
- Shekhar: Prime Minister is only ‘first among equals’, he does not have any special powers. All ministers and the PM have similar powers.
- Bobby: Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers.
The statement of Bobby is applicable to India. Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet and leader of the majority party. He enjoys vast powers but has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. Legally speaking, there is no limitation on the Prime Minister in regard to the formation of the Council of Ministers. But there are certainly and definitely political consideration which he can never brush aside. All the big guns of the party have to be included in the Cabinet.
Why do you think is the advice of the Council of Ministers binding on the President? Give your answer in not more than 100 words.
The Indian Constitution establishes a parliamentary form of government. The President is only a nominal head and the working executive is the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. According to Article 74(1), the President is advised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Commenting on the position of the President, Dr. Ambedkar himself had said in the Constituent Assembly, “The President of the Indian Union will be generally bound by the advice of the ministers. He can do nothing contrary to their advice nor can he do anything without their advice. By 42nd Amendment, even legal position of the President has changed. Under 42nd Amendment, the President was bound to accept the advice of the Council of Ministers. But according to the 44th Amendment, the President may require the Council of Ministers to reconsider any advice tendered by them and that the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration.
The parliamentary system of executive vests many powers in the legislature for controlling the executive. Why do you think, is it so necessary to control the executive?
Parliamentary Government is also known as responsible government. There exists a close relationship between the cabinet and the legislature. All the members of the cabinet are the members of the legislature. They have the right to attend the meetings of the legislature and are to answer questions put to them by the members of the legislature. The cabinet is responsible to the legislature. The responsibility of the cabinet means that so long as it enjoys the confidence of the legislature, it remains in power. The Parliament controls the executive in the following ways:
- The ministers are responsible to the parliament for their actions and policies.
- Through discussions, debates, questions, etc., the Parliament controls the ministers. ‘Question Hour’ and ‘Zero Hour’ are another method to control the executive.
- The members of the Parliament by introducing ‘Adjournment Motions’ can invite the attention of the government to a serious problem or event.
- The Lok Sabha can remove the cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence.
It is said that there is too much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which do not have to answer to the ministers.
- Do you think this will make administration more people-friendly?
- Do you think this will make administration more efficient?
- Does democracy mean full control of elected representatives over the administration?
With the increase of autonomous agencies, administration will become more efficient.
Write an essay of two hundred words on the proposal to have an elected administration instead of an appointed administration.
At present in almost all the democratic countries of the world, administration is appointed. If appointed administration is changed into elected administration, it would be harmful. Appointed administration is efficient and impartial because civil servants are selected on merit basis. Elected administration would become unstable and elected administration cannot handle the administration effectively. Appointed administration is nonpartisan whereas elected administration would become partisan. Elected administration would frame the policies on the basis of promises made at the time of election. In appointed administration, policies are implemented without any political interference. There is full political interference in elected administration which is very harmful for the nation. Elected administration is very expensive. Elected administration lacks technical knowledge while appointed administrations are expert in their field. In every aspect, appointed administration is better than elected administrations.