How was water supplied to the city of Thanjavur?
Thanjavur was the capital city of the Cholas around thousand years ago, and water was supplied to the city of Thanjavur from wells and tanks.
Who lived in the ‘‘Black Towns’’ in cities such as Madras?
“Black towns” were established by European companies and merchants. Artisans, weavers, traders and craftspersons of Indian on local origin lived there.
Why do you think towns grew around temples?
Temples have always played a significant role in India. Besides being the places of worship, the temples have served as economic, academic and administrative centres. These temple towns developed mainly under the royal patronage. The rulers built temples and generously donated land and money to show their religious devotion and piety. Pilgrims, who visited these places, also made donations.
How important were craftspersons for the building and maintenance of temples?
Craftspersons were important for the building and maintenance of temples because temples of those times were very beautiful not only stones were carved out, but also gold and inlay work was done. So, without these craftspersons, it was not possible for the kings to construct and maintain such large and magnificent temples. Hence, the role of craftspersons was very important in construction of these temples. It required some specialised people to do such work.
Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?
Surat grew as a major commercial city and a centre of economic prosperity. It was an emporium of trade with West Asia via Gulf of Ormuz. Its economy revolved around buying and selling of a wide variety of goods. The city did not produce all goods that were traded there. It drew its merchandise from as far as Agra in north and Wengurla on the western coast. The soul of the city was its market.
In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?
The city of Calcutta was basically developed by the Europeans. Demand for goods such as textiles increased and therefore, crafts of spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, etc., were in great demand. Indian textile designs were refined but in Thanjavur, crafts were very different from it. Weavers used to produce cloth for temples, for kings and nobility, and for the masses. It means the craft of Thanjavur was in its backward stage, but craft of Calcutta was in its advanced stage.
Why do you think people regarded Thanjavur as a great town?
In the Chola empire, people started to live around the Chola temples which became the nuclei of settlements. Temples were granted land by the kings and these temples were also the centres of craft production. Income from this land was used for the maintenance of those also who worked for the temples like priests, cooks, musicians, garland-makers, sweepers and dancers. These temples were the places of worship as well as the hub of socio-cultural and economic life.
What do you think were the advantages of using ‘lost wax’ technique?
‘Lost wax’ technique was a way of making bronze statues in the Chola Empire. An image was
initially made of wax. It was later covered with clay and allowed to dry. Thereafter, it was
heated and a tiny hole was made in the clay cover. The molten wax was drained through the
hole. Molten metal was poured through the hole, and then cooled and solidified. The clay
cover was then removed and the image was cleaned and polished. Advantages of ‘lost wax’
techniques can be explained as follows:
(i) It gives a proper finishing and accuracy to the object being made.
(ii) It is a cost-friendly and time-saving method.
Make a list of towns in your district and try to classify these as administrative centres or as temple/pilgrim centres.
Temple towns: Benaras, Mathura, Gaya, Kanchipuram, etc.
Administrative centres: Delhi, Bombay, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, etc.
Why do you think the city (Hampi) was fortified?
Hampi is located in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin and formed the nucleus of the Vijayanagara Empire. It was founded in 1336 C.E. The magnificent ruins at Hampi reveal it as a well-fortified city with high walls and towers, which were built mainly as a protection barrier to a wealthy capital area.
Why did the English and the Dutch decide to establish settlements in Masulipatnam?
(i) Masulipatnam was the most important port of the Andhra coast.
(ii) It had the convenience of the place where ships could anchor.
(iii) It was a trade town well-connected to the hinterland.Due to all the above stated reasons, the English and the Dutch decided to establish settlements in Masulipatnam.