What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.
The literal meaning of Manipravalam is ‘diamonds and corals’ which refers to two languages—Sanskrit and the regional language. A book written in this language was Lilatilakam, a fourteenth-century text which dealt with grammar and poetics.
Who were the major patrons of Kathak?
The Mughal Emperors and their nobles were patrons of Kathak as it was performed in their courts in a form of dance with a different style. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was its great patron under which it grew into a major art form.
What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?
In Bengal, temples started to copy double or four-roofed structure of the thatched huts. Actually in a four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to the coverage on a curved line or a point. Generally, temples were built on a square platform. Outer walls of temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tables but interior of temples was relatively plain.
Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?
nstrels were the travelling musicians of Europeans who used to earn their livelihood by singing the tales or stories of war heroes especially the Rajput rulers. These preserved the memories of heroes and expected to inspire other people to follow the examples of their heroes. Generally, ordinary people used to be attracted by these stories which showed dramatic situations and many strong emotions like friendship, loyalty, valour, anger, love, etc.
Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people?
We know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people
due to the following reasons:
(i) Rulers had the wealth of their states in their hands because of which they built temples and other types of buildings, and these buildings exist even today. We can come to know about the rulers from these buildings, but there was no such facility available with the ordinary people.
(ii) Rulers used to show their devotion and wealth to the people by making temples, but ordinary people were unable to do so.
(iii) Almost all the rulers had different scholars in their courts who wrote about the achievements, administration and working of the kingdom. With this, they also wrote about the love of rulers for art and architecture. Therefore, whatever books of history are available to us are about the rulers, and not about ordinary people. Hence, we know more about the cultural practices of rulers instead of the ordinary people.
Why did conquerors try to control the temples of Jagannatha at Puri?
In the 12th century, the temple of Jagannatha was built at Puri. The rulers of Puri had great faith in Lord Jagannatha. With the passage of time, the importance of the temple as a centre of pilgrimage increased, and its authority over social and political matters increased. Therefore, the rulers who conquered Odisha, like Mughals, Marathas or British, tried to gain control over the temple because they felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the general public of that particular area.
Why were temples built in Bengal?
Temples were generally built by rulers to demonstrate their power and devotion to their deities. But in Bengal, European trading companies came and they created new economic opportunities. Many socially backward groups availed these economic opportunities and their social and economic situation improved with this. Therefore, they constructed temples to proclaim their status. Or, we can say that those lower social groups tried to claim higher social status and hence, they built these temples.
Find out how many states have been created in the last 10 years. Is each of these states a region?
Three states: (in 2000)
(i) Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand)
Yes, each of these states is a region.
Find out when the language(s) you speak at home were first used for writing.
Probably in ninth century (Answer may vary).
Find out whether there are traditions of heroes/heroines in your town or village. What are the qualities associated with them? In what ways are these similar to or different from the heroic ideals of the Rajputs?
(i) Banda Veer Bairagi
(ii) He was brave and fearless.
(iii) He never surrendered to the Mughals. He was killed by the Mughal emperors.
Find out more about any one of the classical dance forms.
Kathakali is a dance form in which a dancer shows various poses along with singing and religious themes.
Why do you think the second category of texts was not written down?
The second category of texts was not written down as they were recited orally. Their date cannot be determined. They were popular in eastern Bengal.