NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

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“Manufacturing Industries” chapter in the Geography book of Class 10th tells about the significance of manufacturing and its contribution to the National Economy. The manufacturing industry is known to be the foundation of development. Therefore, through this chapter students will learn about the factors impacting industrial location, mineral-based industries, ago-based, industries, chemical industries, and so much more. The chapter will also provide the reason for environmental degradation due to industrial pollution and the steps taken to prevent the same.

Question 1:

Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?

  1. Aluminium
  2. Cement
  3. Sugar
  4. Jute

(b) Jute

Question 2:

Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?

  1. HAIL
  2. SAIL
  3. TATA Steel
  4. MNCC

(b) SAIL

Question 3:

Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?

  1. Aluminium Smelting
  2. Cement
  3. Paper
  4. Steel

(a) Aluminium Smelting

Question 4:

Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?

  1. Steel
  2. Electronic
  3. Aluminium Smelting
  4. Information Technology

(b) Electronic

Question 5:

Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words

  1. What is manufacturing
  2. Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
  3. Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
  4. What are basic Industries? Give an example.
  5. Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.
  1. Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into finished products. It is called the utility of raw materials.
  2. (a) Raw materials; (b) Power; (c) Climate.
  3. (a) Capital; (b) Government policies; (c) Market.
  4. Basic industries are those industries which provide raw materials to other industries, such as iron and steel industry.
  5. Limestone, coal, gypsum, silica and alumina.
Question 6:

Write the answers of the following question in 120 words.

How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face?

What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?


An integrated steel plant is a large unit. It handles everything in one complex. These collect raw materials to make steel, by rolling and shaping.

Mini steel plants are smaller units. These have electric furnaces. These use steel scrap and sponge iron. These have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. These produce mica and alloy steel.

Problems faced by these Industries:

  1. High cost of production. (b) Limited availability of coking coal.
  2. Lower productivity of labour. (d) Irregular supply of energy.
  3. Poor infrastructure.

Recent Developments: Some developments have increased the production capacity of this industry such as:

  1. Liberalisation (b) Foreign direct investment
  2. Private ownership (d) Resources for research and development have been increased
Question 7:

Write the answers of the following question in 120 words.

How do industries pollute the environment?


Environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem for mankind. Industries have caused air, water, land and noise pollution. Sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide gases cause air pollution. Smoke from chemical industries and burning of fossil fuels cause hazards. Bhopal Gas Tragedy is an example. Industrial wastes dumped into lakes and seas cause water pollution. Wastes from Nuclear plants cause cancer. Industrial processes also cause noise pollution.

Question 8:

Write the answers of the following question in 120 words.

Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?


The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), a major Government of India undertaking, has adopted an aggressive approach for the task of preserving and protecting our natural environment. In all its operations, it has taken some of the following measures for rejuvenating the environment:

  1. Optimise equipment utilisation and upgrade the existing facilities.
  2. Minimising waste generation and maximising the use of wastes, like ash from power plants by supplying the same to the bricklaying industries free of cost. It has also adopted some innovative techniques and passed on the technology to small bricklayers.
  3. To reduce pollution of all types, techniques such as—waste management, recycling of resources, etc., are being adopted on a regular basis.
  4. It has also embarked on public awareness measures, to prevent industries from degrading the environment.
Question 9:

Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.

  1. Used to drive machinery (5) P______________
  2. People who work in a factory (6) W_____________
  3. Where the product is sold (6) M_____________
  4. A person who sells goods (8) R______________
  5. Thing produced (7) P______________
  6. To make or produce (11) M_____________
  7. Land, water and Air degraded (9) P______________
  1. Power;
  2. Worker;
  3. Market;
  4. Retailer;
  5. Product;
  6. Manufacture;
  7. Pollution
Question 10:

Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.

  1. Oil
  2. Knitting needles
  3. Brassware
  4. Fuse wires
  5. Watches
  6. Sewing machines
  7. Shipbuilding
  8. Electric Bulbs
  9. Paint Brushes
  10. Automobiles
  1. On the basis of raw-material: Oil, Brassware, Shipbuilding and Automobiles.
  2. On the basis of finished goods: Knitting Needles, Fuse Wire, Watches, Sewing Machine, Electric Bulb and Paint Brush.
Question 12:

Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving khadi?


Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on the spinning of yarn and weaving khadi because he thought that by promoting these industries, more employment opportunities should be generated. By doing so, he also wanted to spread the use of homemade clothes.

Question 13:

Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handloom?


Mill sector loomage provides much less employment than the power loom and handloom. The power loom and handloom are established in rural and semi-urbanised areas, hence they develop the surrounding areas, whereas the mill sector loomage are located in urban areas and do not contribute to increasing the standard of living of the rural people.

Question 14:

Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?


It is important for us to improve the weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities because of the following reasons:

  1. It would lead to earning of more foreign exchange.
  2. It would generate more income.
  3. It would add more value to the yarn sector.
Question 15:

Why is the per capita consumption of steel low in India?


The per capita consumption of steel is low in India because of the following reasons:

  1. The quality of infrastructure is very poor.
  2. Most of the Indian population live in villages, which require a very small quantity of steel.
  3. Low development in tribal areas.
Question 16:

A factory produces aluminium saucepans with plastic handles. It obtains aluminium from a smelter and a plastic component from another factory. All the manufactured saucepans are sent to a warehouse:

  1. (a) Which raw material is likely to be most expensive to transport and why?
    (b) Which raw material is likely to be the cheapest to transport and why?
  2. Do you think the cost of transporting the finished products after packaging is likely to be cheaper or more expensive than the cost of transporting aluminium and plastic? Why?
  1. (a) Alumunium is likely to be the most expensive because it is very bulky and a heavy raw material. It is not easy to transport it from far away areas.
    (b) Plastic is likely to be the cheapest to transport because it is a very light material and is easily available in the nearby areas.
  2. The transporting of finished goods is likely to be more costly because these goods are carefully packed and handeled than the raw-materials.
Question 17:

Where would it be economically viable to set up the cement manufacturing units?


It would be economically viable to set up the cement manufacturing industries near the sources of raw materials.