The NCERT Solutions for the chapter “Political Parties” will assist students in preparing for the board exams. The questions, designed by the experts, include topics related to the working of the Indian political parties. Students will get the latest NCERT Solutions for Class 10th to help them get familiar with the concept before appearing for their main exam. The solutions also come in handy while doing revision and the questions included will cover the entire syllabus.
From the “Political Parties” chapter, students of Class 10th will learn and understand why there is a need for political parties, how many political parties does India have, the important state and national parties of India, major challenges faced by the parties, ways and efforts to enhance the parties and their leaders in India.
State the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy.
- Contest elections: Political parties, in most of the democracies, contest elections and elect their candidates in the political arena. In our country, central leadership selects them on different basis.
- Put forward policies and programmes: Political parties make policies and programmes for the welfare of the people and voters choose those parties whose policies they like the most. In a democracy, people have different opinions but they are grouped together to provide one direction in which policies could be formulated by the government.
- Making Laws: Political party running the government frames the laws for the country. Actually, laws are made by the legislature but the party which is in power gets directions on that issue from the Centre to make a particular law.
- Form political parties and run the government: Party which wins the majority, forms the government and governs according to the policies and ideology of the political party.
- Play the role of opposition: All parties cannot make the government. Those parties who are unable to make the government perform the role of opposition and try to raise and highlight those issues that the current government is unable to resolve.
- Voice public opinion: Political parties voice public opinion and raise issues related to social concern. With the help of activities, pressure groups, etc., the party launches movements for solving the problems of the people.
- Social welfare schemes: Political parties provide access to welfare schemes initiated by the government. Parties should be held responsible for people’s needs and demands. If political parties do not care for the demands of the people then they might have to step down from power in the next elections.
What are the various challenges faced by political parties?
Which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Give your opinions.
- Lack of internal democracy: Although democracy functions with the help of political parties but very often lack of internal democracy within the party can be seen. Generally, the power within the party is concentrated in the hands of one or two leaders. Even they do not conduct regular elections for office bearers or keep membership registers. Ordinary members neither get any inside information of the party nor can they influence the decision within the party. The members are generally dissatisfied with the leaders.
- Dynastic succession: The biggest challenge within the political parties is the issue of dynastic succession. These parties do not have transparent functioning which is why the leaders always try to give unfair advantage to their family members. Hence, a political party remains under the control of one family. We can take the examples of Congress, SAD, RJD, INLD, DMK, etc.
- Money and muscle power: Another challenge which political parties face is the increased role of money and muscle power especially at the time of elections. Parties, these days, try to nominate that person as their candidate who is either rich or has sufficient muscle power behind him. Due to this, criminals are given tickets from national parties to win majority in elections.
- Lack of meaningful choice: Political parties generally discuss problems which the country is facing and their policy to resolve that problem. They always try to convince the general masses that their policies are better than the other parties. Differences arise only on priority of issue and how these policies are framed. All the political parties are same in one way or the other which is why people don’t have any meaningful choice among them.
Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well.
Suggest any explain five measures to reform political parties.
Suggest any five effective measure to reform political parties.
In today’s modern age of democracy, political parties require reformation. Many challenges such as dynastic succession, lack of internal democracy, lack of meaningful choice, increasing role of money and muscle power, etc., are faced by the political parties. The following are some of the reforms required by the political parties:
- These days no one can change his/her party after Anti-Defection Law was passed in the Parliament. Amendment was made in the Constitution to prevent MPs and MLAs from changing parties. If anyone tries to change his/her party, he/she loses his/her seat.
- Supreme Court has helped in reducing the influence of criminals and money in elections. It is now mandatory for every person contesting the election, to give an affidavit regarding his wealth and criminal cases pending against him. With this, people can acquire information about their leaders and this has also led to decline in criminalisation of politics.
- Election Commission has also ordered all political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns for the purpose of introducing internal democracy. Parties have started to do so formally.
- Regulating internal affairs in the party should be made compulsory. Registers of the existing members should be made. All parties should follow their constitution and regular elections should be held for the higher post of the party.
- Parties should be asked to reserve at least one-third of the seats for women candidates. In the same way, women should have their share in the party’s decision-making bodies so that steps can be taken for the betterment of women.
- State should provide funds for contesting elections. It can be either given in the form of cash or in the form of petrol, paper, telephone, etc. This may reduce the influence of money in the elections.
What is a political party?
A political party is a group of people who share the same ideology and join hands for contesting elections and win over the majority to make the government. All members of a political party agree on some policies for the welfare of the society. Every political party has its own ideology on different issues of public interest and has own policies to resolve these issues. All the political parties work for the interests of the general masses.
What are the characteristics of a political party?
Every political party consists of people who have common programme on political issues to which they have agreed to and are prepared to implement that on common line of action. Each political party tries to seek political power either solely or in cooperation with any other political party. Political party has certain characteristics which are given ahead:
- Well-organised: A good political party should be well-organised and its members should be welldisciplined. They should be willing to accept the code of conduct of the party and while doing so, they should forget their own convenience. They should keep party discipline above everything else.
- Common programme: Another characteristic of a political party is that its members believe in common programme to which they have already agreed. They should uphold that these programmes are implemented properly at every stage.
- Common aim of getting power: Every party has one common aim and that is to attain power in one way or the other. For this, they contest elections and try to win over the majority. If alone they are unable to do so then they make an alliance with other parties to form the government.
- Broad base: A good political party is expected to have a broad base for decision-making. If the decisions are taken by a limited number of persons who are accepted as leaders or consider themselves so, then that party does not last long.
A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a _______________________ .
A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a political party.
Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
- Congress Party
- Bharatiya Janata Party
- Communist Party of India (Marxist)
- Telugu Desam Party
1. (c), 2. (a), 3. (d), 4. (b)
Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party?
- Kanshi Ram
- Sahu Maharaj
- BR Ambedkar
- Jotiba Phule
(a) Kanshi Ram
What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party?
- Bahujan Samaj
- Revolutionary democracy
- Integral humanism
(c) Integral humanism
Consider the following statements on parties.
- Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people.
- Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top party leaders.
- Parties are not necessary to run governments.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
- A, B, and C
- A and B
- B and C
- A and C
(i) A and B
Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
Muhammad Yunus is a famous economist of Bangladesh. He received several international honours for his efforts to promote economic and social development for the benefit of the poor. He and the Grameen Bank he started jointly, received the Nobel Peace Prize for the 2006. In February 2007, he decided to launch a political party and contest in the parliamentary elections. His objective was to foster proper leadership, good governance and build a new Bangladesh. He felt that only a political party different from the traditional ones would bring about new political culture. His party would be democratic from the grassroots level. The launching of the new party, called Nagarik Shakti (Citizens’ Power), has caused a stir among the Bangladeshis. While many welcomed his decision, some did not like it. “Now I think Bangladesh will have a chance to choose between good and bad and eventually have a good government,” said Shahedul Islam, a government official.
“That government, we hope, would not only keep itself away from corruption but also make fighting corruption and black money a top priority.”
But leaders of traditional political parties who dominated the country’s politics for decades were apprehensive. “There was no debate (over him) winning the Nobel, but politics is different–very challenging and often controversial,” said a senior leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Some others were highly critical. They asked why he was rushing into politics. “Is he being planted in politics by mentors from outside the country,” asked one political observer.
Do you think Yunus made a right decision to float a new political party?
Do you agree with the statements and fears expressed by various people? How do you want this new party organised to make it different from other parties? If you were the one to begin this political party how would you defend it?
Muhammad Yunus is a famous economist of Bangladesh and he has done right to float a political party because he wanted to prosper Bangladesh with his policies.
I also agree with the fears expressed by various people about his political party that winning a Noble Prize and working in active politics are two very different things.
It is right that Muhammud Yunus has started a political party but his party should have certain characteristics. It should not work under the influence of money and muscle power, and should reject the concept of dynastic succession. It should also regularly hold fair internal elections.
Can you find the names of at least two States for each of these types?
- Two-party system
- Multiparty system with two alliances
- Multiparty system
- Two-party system: Tamil Nadu and Kerala
- Multiparty system with two alliances: Bihar and Maharashtra
- Multiparty system: Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Why don’t parties give enough tickets to women? Is that also due to lack of internal democracy?
In this male dominated society, women are discriminated in every field. In politics also, due to the lack of internal democracy, women are not provided with adequate tickets. Since all members of a political party do not have equal decision making power, women are generally discriminated against and are not given important posts in the political parties.
Does this (NCERT Textbook page 85) suggest that in democracies people contest elections only to make money? But isn’t it true that there are politicians committed to the well-being of the people?
Money plays a major role in politics nowadays. Due to corrupt practices, whosoever is in power wants to make as much money as possible through unscrupulous means. There are many politicians who are committed to the well-being of the people but due to lack of internal democracy, such people do not get to make decisions in the party.