NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

Question 1:

What do you think is the significance of Reproductive Health in a society ?


A reproductively healthy society survives in a normal way. Reproductive health ensures that all individuals in the reproductive age group are fertile and able to carry on human race further. Individuals should be educated about reproduction-related aspects like controlled population, absence of sex-abuses and sex-related crimes in the society and enable people to think and take up necessary steps to build up a society that is reproductively healthy.

Question 2:

Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.


Conferring upon the demands of the present situation of our country, the following aspects of reproductive health should be given special attention:
(1) Control of human population.
(2) Creation of awareness about reproduction related aspects among people including sex education to students.
(3) Implementation of various action plans to attain reproductive health and building a reproductively healthy society.
(4) Continued research on reproduction related areas.
(5) Providing medical assistance and care to people especially during pregnancy, delivery, STDs, abortions, contraceptions, menstrual problems, infertility etc.
(6) Measures of birth control.

Question 3:

Is sex education necessary in schools? If so why?


Yes, sex education should be encouraged in schools to give right information to the young minds to save them from myths and misconceptions about sexrelated aspects. Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS would help people to lead a reproductively healthy life. Thus sex education is necessary to make the society reproductively healthy.

Question 4:

Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.


Yes, reproductive health in our country has tremendously improved in the past 50 years and the following are some areas of improvement.
1. Improved Medical facilities available for the treatment of diseases.
2. Rapid decline in death rate.
3. Success of programmes like family planning and Reproductive and Child Health Care Programmes.
4. Increased awareness among people about reproduction related aspects.

Question 5:

What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?


The following are the suggested reasons for population explosion:
1. Rapid decline in death rate.
2. Decline in maternal mortality rate (MMR).
3. Decline in infant mortality rate (IMR).
4. Increase in number of people in reproducible age.

Question 6:

Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.


The use of contraceptives is justified because these methods prevent or delay pregnancy and in the long run, help to check uncontrolled growth of population and thereby reduce the ill-effects of over population on the reproductive health of the society.

Question 7:

Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive options. Why?


Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraception option because of following reasons: 1. It should not have side effects. Gonads also secrete hormones. Thus the other functions will be harmed.
2. It should not interfere with sexual desire.
3. It is irreversible process. It will lead to infertility.

Question 8:

Amniocentesis, the foetal sex determination test, is banned in our country. Is it necessary? Comment.


Amniocentesis is a foetal sex determination test based upon the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. It should be legally banned throughout the country as such a ban shall check increasing female foeticide cases and maintain a normal sex ratio in the country.

Question 9:

Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.


There are numerous assisted reproductive technologies (ART) available which can bless infertile couples with children, they are:
(1) IVF-In Vitro Fertilization (Test tube babies).
(2) ET-Embryo Transfer
(3) ZIFT-Zygote Intra Fallopian transfer.
(4) GIFT-Gamete Intra Fallopian transfer.
(5) ICSI-Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection.
(6) IUI-Intra uterine Insemination.

Question 10:

What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?


STDs are sexually transmitted diseases which are transmitted from an infected person to a normal person through sexual intercourse. STDs are a major threat to a healthy society and can be prevented by adopting following practices:
1. Avoidance of sex with multiple partners.
2. Avoidance of sex with unknown partners.
3. Complete abstinence from sex with infected individuals.
4. Use of condoms during sexual intercourse.
5. In case of doubt, a qualified doctor should be consulted.

Question 11:

Abortions could happen spontaneously too



Question 12:

Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner



Question 13:

Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception



Question 14:

Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people.



Question 15:

Correct the following statements:
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
(d) In E.T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.


(a) Surgical methods of contraception block gamete transport and thereby prevent conception.
(b) Few sexually transmitted diseases are curable if detected at early stage and some sexually transmitted diseases are not curable e.g. AIDS.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the educated urban women.
(d) In E.T. techniques, 8-celled embryos may be transferred into the fallopian tubes and more than 8-celled embryos are transferred into uterus.