Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect ?
- Partition of India was the outcome of the ‘Two-Nation Theory.’
- Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
- East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
- The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
(iv) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
Match the principles with the instances :
- Mapping of boundaries on religious grounds
- Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languages
- Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zones
- Demarcating within a country on adminstrative and political grounds
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. ( c)
Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States.
Here are two opinions :
Bismay : ‘‘The merger with the Indian state was an extension of democracy to the people of the princely states.’’
Inderpreet : ‘‘I am not so sure there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.’’ What is your own opinion in the light of accession of princely states and the responses of the people in these parts ?
I fully agree with the view of Bismay that the merger of princely states with the Indian state was an extension of democracy to the people of the princely states because in these states there was no democracy at all.
Read the following very different
statement made in August 1947.
‘‘Today you have Worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat … you have to be more humble and forbearing … now there will be no end to your being tested.’’ –M.K. GANDHI
… India will awake to a life of freedom … We step out from the old to the new … We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opining of opportunity…’’ – JAWAHARLAL NEHRU spell out the agenda of nation-building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why ?
The statements made by Mahatma Gandhi and Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru are very important and meaningful. By this statement Gandhiji has reminded the Indians that independence is not bed of roses; independence means more responsibility and accountability. Pt. Nehru considered independence as opening of the chapter of opportunities. Period of ill fortunes is over and period of hopes and betterment has begun.
What are the reasons being used by Nehru or keeping India secular ? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental ? Or were there some prudential reasons as well ?
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru gave the following reasons to make India a secular state.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s approach to the problems of life was scientific and realistic. He opposed traditional customs and conventions.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to separate religion and politics. To make democracy successful, it is essential that democratic government should be based on secularism.
- According to Pt. Nehru to build a unified nation, it is essential that secularism should be adopted. There should be no official religion of the state. To protect Muslim minority and to create confidence among Muslims, Pt. Nehru favoured secularism. Pt. Nehru was a staunch secularist. To protect the rights of Muslims, India was declared a secular state. There was no prudential reason, rather there was only ethical and sentimental reason.
Bring out two major differences between the challenges of nation-building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of independence.
Two major differences between the challenges of nation-building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of independence were as follow :
- Colonial System of provincial administration.
- Cultural development of diverse communities of India.
What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission ? What was its most salient recomendations ?
After independence, the reorganisation of states was sought on linguistic basis. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru announced the appointment of this Commission in Lok Sabha on 22 December 1953 for impartial perusal of the issue. This Commission was headed by Fazzal Ali. The Commission recommended the regrouping of states on the basis of language and culture as well. It submitted its recommendations as under :
- Proper attention should be given to cultural and communicative needs of the communities speaking different languages.
- Attention should be paid to the other regional languages besides Hindi.
- Linguistic minorities should be well protected.
It is said that the nation is to a large extent an ‘Imagined Community’ held together by common belief, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.
A nation is a group of people bound together by certain ties like common religion, common culture, common beliefs, common history, common political aspirations and imagination, etc. in such a manner that they have a sense of oneness. Before independence, the question often arose whether India should be called a nation or not. Many foreign writers refused to accept India as a nation. Prime Minister Churchill of England did not accept India’s claim of being called a nation. But India is a nation. Unity in Diversity. Though India is a country of many languages, many religions, many races and different customs, yet after the achievement of independence there is evident amongst its people a Consiousness of Unity. There is a Current of Unity in India’s diversity. This was seen at the time of the Indo-Indian conflict and the Indo-Pakistan War. It is this unity that makes our representatives speak with one voice in international conference. Sovereign State. India is fully severeign both in national and international matters. Our government is fully sovereign, backed by the united will of the people.
Spiritual Feeling. Nationality is a spiritual feeling, and the people of India had this feeling even before independence and they have that feeling now also. Despite all the differences amongst the various communities inhabiting India, people have the feeling of one nation.
National Integration. It is due to own national integration that we can say with pride India was nation before 1947 and it is nation even now. Secular State. India is a secular state and it has encouraged national integration. Planning. After the independence Indian government adopted planning for economic development of the country. Planning has become integral part of our political and economic system.
Read the following passage and answer
the questions below : (Imp.)
‘In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There, too, a sense of Unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale – geographic as well as demographic … was comparably massive. The raw material, the state had to work with was equally unpropitious, a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease. ‘ –Ramchandra Guha
- List the communalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
- The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities ?
- In restrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why ?
(a) (i) Unity among many ethnic groups.
(ii) Unity among religious communities.
(iii) Unity among linguistic communities.
(iv) Unity between social classes.
(b) Following are the two dissimilarities between the two experiments :
(i) Establishment of federation
(ii) Economic and Political Planning.
(c) Soviet Union experiment had worked better. There, too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes.