NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 - New Centres of Power

Question 1:

Arrange the following in chronological order :

  1. China’s accession to WTO 2001
  2. Establishment of the E.E.C. 1957
  3. Establishment of the EU 1992
  4. Birth of A.R.F. 1994

(b) 1957 (c) 1992 (d) 1994 (a) 2001.

Question 2:

The ‘ASEAN Way’

  1. Reflects the lifestyle of ASEAN members
  2. A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.
  3. The defence policy followed by the ASEAN members.
  4. The road that connects all the ASEAN members.

(ii) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.

Question 3:

Who among the following adopted ‘Open door’ policy ?

  1. China
  2. South Korea
  3. Japan
  4. USA.

(i) China

Question 4:

The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over .................... and ....................region.


Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin

Question 5:

ARF was established in the year ....................



Question 6:

China entered into bilateral relations with ................... ( a major country) in 1972.



Question 7:

.................................... plan influenced the establishment of the organisation for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.



Question 8:

..................... is an organisation of ASEAN that deals with security.


Security Community

Question 9:

What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations ?


The main aims of establishing regional organisations are given below :

  1. The main aim of regional organisation is the development of regional cooperation amongst the member countries of a region.
  2. The aim is to create the feeling of brotherhood amongst the member states
  3. Regional organisations boost the economic development of their members.
  4. Regional organisations aim to create a balance of power in international politics, so that super powers do not play their ‘dadagiri’.
  5. Regional organisations increase the foreign trade of their members. Foreign trade brings foreign exchange as well as prosperity.
  6. Regional organisation aims to create collective security for their member states. Collective security is more effective but less expensive.
Question 10:

How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations ?


Geographical proximity plays a very important role in the formation of regional organisations. Groom believes that “it is abusing the common sense meaning of the term to envisage it (regionalism) in any other way than primarily as a geographical entity.” Due to geographical proximity feelings of brotherhood and mutual cooperation developed among the neighbouring states, neighbour countries generally develop the bonds of friendship and spirit of cooperation and these are very helpful in the strengthening of regional organisations. Due to geographical unity the countries possess common customs, common traditions, common culture, common interests, common problems, etc. These common feelings create a feeling of brotherhood among them. Geographical unity encourages economic cooperation and interstate trade. Thus geographical unity is very helpful in the establishment of a regional organisation. But geographical contiguity is not the only criterion in the formation of regional organisations.

Question 11:

What are the components of the ASEAN VISION 2020 ?


ASEAN was established in 1967 by five countries of this region. The main objective of ASEAN was to accelerate economic growth. ASEAN is fast growing into a very important regional organisation. Its vision 2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. In its vision 2020 ASEAN has hoped that it will become very strong in economy and that it will be able to play an important role in international affairs. ASEAN would encourage negotiations to solve conflicts in the region. It would encourage the spirit of cooperation and brotherhood. ASEAN would encourage respect for sovereign rights of the member states. It would play the role of mediator to solve disputes among the states. ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian conflict, the East Timor Crisis, etc.

Question 12:

Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community.


Assess the three main pillars of the ASEAN Community.


In the Summit of 2003, ASEAN decided to establish an ASEAN Community on the line of European Union. ASEAN Community consists of three pillars :

  1. The ASEAN Security Community, (2) The ASEAN Economic Community and (3) The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

Objectives of the ASEAN Community. Main objectives of the ASEAN Community are as follows

  1. The main objective is to accelerate economic growth.
  2. Development of Culture and Social progress.
  3. To create a common market and production base for ASEAN countries.
  4. To safeguard the economic interests of the member states.
  5. To promote regional peace and stability.
  6. To promote mutual cooperation and assistance in providing training and research facilities to their people.
Question 13:

In what ways does the present Chinese Economy differ from its Command Economy ?


In following ways the present Chinese Economy differs from its Command Economy :

  1. After the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 Soviet model of economy was followed. Planned and state controlled economy was followed whereas present Chinese economy is based on privatisation and free trade.
  2. In Command Economy, agriculture and industry were completely under the control of the state, but at present there is privatisation of agriculture and industry.
  3. In the State-Controlled Economy there was no room for private enterprise and private property. But in the present economic system private enterprise and private property are integral part of Chinese economic system.
  4. In the Command Economy there was no room for foreign investment. But at present China is considered to be the most attractive nation for foreign investment.
  5. In the Command Economy there was no free market and open competition. But the present economy of China is based on free competition. China is a member of World Trade Organisation.
Question 14:

How did the European countries resolve their post-World War II problems ? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.


European Union is a very strong regional organisation of European countries. It plays a very important role in world politics. European Union is also called European Common Market or European Common Community.

The two World Wars within a very short duration inflicted very heavy losses upon European countries. During six years of the Second World War, European countries suffered heavy economic, material and manpower losses. The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. After the Second World War majority of the European leaders were convinced that their relations should be recon-structed. They were compelled to find out solutions from European perspective and ultimately formed an organisation known as European Union. Attempts that led to the formation of the European Union may be discussed as follows :

  1. After Second World War, European integration was aided by Cold War. To revive Europe’s economy America extended financial aid to European countries under Marshall Plan.
  2. Under Marshall plan an organisation of European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to channel aid to the West European states.
  3. In 1949 the Council of Europe was established for coordinating the policies of the member states.
  4. In 1951 six countries of Western Europe (Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, West Germany and Luxumberg) signed a treaty called Treaty of Paris and formed European Coal and Steel Community.
  5. In 1957 six countries who had established European Coal and Steel Community signed a treaty called Treaty of Rome and established European Economic Community. They also established another forum called European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
  6. In 1979 a parliament of European Economic Community was established. Members of European parliament are directly elected.
  7. Disintegration of Soviet Union in December 1991 encouraged Western European countries to move further for regional cooperation. They signed a treaty at Maastricht (Netherlands) and European Union was established. After the historic Maastricht (Netherlands) treaty, the European Communities got united with the European Union and adopted the objectives of securing a real and effective Monetary Union and Political Union.
Question 15:

What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation ?


“European Union is a highly influential regional organization.” Justify the statement with any four suitable arguments..


The European Union also has political and diplomatic influence. One of the European members, France is a permanent member of the Security Council of United Nations. Besides permanent members many members of the European Union are non-permanent members of the Security Council. In this way European Union has influenced the policies and various resolutions of the United Nations. It has also exercised some influence on U.S. policies such as current U.S. position on Iran Nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations have been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation.

Question 16:

The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement ? Substantiate your arguments.


Why did India and China both view themselves as rising powers in the global politics in spite of tensions between them? Substantiate your answer by giving any four areas that have brought cordiality in their relationship.


After the disintegration of Soviet Union a Unipolar World Order emerged. After 1990 USA. became the sole super power in world politics. There was no opposition or challenge to her authority. America started behaving as a hegemonic actor. Due to the dominance of USA. in world affairs leaders of the world have started thinking how to control the hegemony of America.

Some thinkers and leaders of the world are of the view that the emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. There is a great truth in this view due to following facts and reasons :

  1. China and India are two of the biggest countries of the world. Population wise China is No. 1 and India is No. 2 in the world. China’s population is more than 122 crores, while that of India is more than 100 crores.
  2. The economies of both the countries are fast developing. Past-Mao China established an all-time global record in doubling per capita output between 1977 and 1987. According to the World Bank’s purchasing power parity (ppp) estimate, China with 1994 G.D.P. of just under 8.3 trillion, has become the second largest economy in the world, after the United States.
  3. According to Rand study, China’s GDP will reach $ 11.3 trillion by 2010 compared to $ 10.7 trillion for the United States. It is estimated that China’s economy would become the largest economy of the world by the end of 2040. India’s economy is also rising very fast.
  4. In the present time United States is improving its relations with India and China. USA. is more interested in maintaining close relations with India and China.
  5. Both China and India are nuclear powers. China is a permanent member of the Security Council while India is in the race for a permanent member seat in the Security Council.
  6. Both China and India have adopted privatisation and free trade policy.
  7. India’s foreign policy is based on the principle of non-alignment and India has always adopted independent foreign policy. India has criticised policies and activities of USA when the occasion demanded. India did not agree to send forces to Iraq inspite of many requests made by America. India refused to participate in any operation which did not have the approval of United Nations.
  8. India conducted five nuclear tests at Pokhran in 1998 in order to develop a full-fledged nuclear deterrent to safeguard its security. President Bill Clinton ordered tough sanctions against India in retaliation for its underground nuclear tests. However, India did not bother about American sanctions and ultimately on 23rd September 2001 America lifted the sanctions.
  9. Both China and India have large foreign exchange reserves and both are in a position to make big investments in other countries. We can safely conclude that in the near future unipolar world order would be replaced by multi-polar world order.

Following are the areas that have brought coordiality between the two nations.

  1. India and China having good economic relations.
  2. Both countries becoming more familiar with each other, increasing transportation.
  3. Both countries having similar views on clean energy.
  4. India and China having similar views of climate change.
Question 17:

The peace and prosperity of countries lie in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisation. Justify this statement.


It is rightly said that the peace and prosperity of countries are important for the establishment and strengthening of regional organisations. This statement is also supported by the history of the world. Regional economic organisations always promote peace and prosperity whereas military regional alliances generally promote war and destruction. After the Second World War, USA. and USSR. emerged as super powers. Super powers developed two Blocs i.e. Soviet bloc and American bloc. There was atmosphere of Cold War. Due to military alliances and military regional organisations there were many conflicts in different parts of the world. But, on the other hand regional economic organisation brought peace and prosperity in many parts of the world. For example European Economic Community was established in 1957 with a view to reconstructing the economy of European countries. Within a short period it became a very powerful economic and political regional organisation and its economy is next to that of USA. New European Union has its own parliament, own flag and its own currency. European Union has succeeded in bringing peace and prosperity in the Europe on the basis of its economic strength.

Another example of regional economic organisation is that of ASEAN. ASEAN was established in 1967. ASEAN has played a very important role in bringing peace and prosperity in the region. The following facts also support the statement that peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisation :

  1. Regional economic organisation promotes the feelings of mutual cooperation amongst the members.
  2. It accelerates economic growth and it improves the standard of living of the people.
  3. It promotes and strengthens cooperation with other countries of the world.
  4. It contributes to the development of atmosphere of peace in the region and ultimately in the world.
  5. It maintains balance of power which is essential for world peace.
  6. Regional economic organisation encourages free trade and common currency amongst the member states.
  7. It encourages members to solve their conflicts peacefully.
Question 18:

Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation ? Give your suggestions.


The relations between India and China are very ancient. Till 1962 the relations between the two countries were very cordial. China attacked India on 20th Oct. 1962. China declared Unilateral Ceasefire on 21st November 1962. By waging a war, China was able to capture thousands of miles of Indian territory which is still under Chinese possession. Given ahead are the main contentious issues between India and China :

  1. India and China have a controversy over the McMohan line, the border line between India and China.
  2. China entered into military alliances with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. These agreements pose a great threat to the security of India.
  3. Tibet issue is another issue of contention between India and China. India considers Tibet as an autonomous region of China, However, China considers Tibetan exile government in India an act of hostility.
  4. China by its action has not recognised Arunachal Pradesh as Indian territory. It has shown Arunachal Pradesh in Chinese maps.

While boundary problem is still unresolved, both countries have come forward to strengthen their relations in the field of trade and commerce. Trade relations began in 1978 itself. In 2007 trade volume between the two countries rose to $40 b. Official and political leaders are exchanged. Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited China on 15 January 2008. Indian Prime Minister and Chinese Prime Minister signed a joint declaration titled ‘A Shared Vision for the 21st Century.’ They also signed 11 Agreements for cooperation in rail, housing, geosciences, land resources management and other sectors.