Match the terms with their meaning :
- Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
- Arms Control
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a)
Which among the following you consider as a traditional security concern/non-traditional security concern/not a threat ?
- The spread of Chikungunya/dengue fear.
- Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation.
- Emergence of a group demanding nationhood for their region.
- Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region.
- A newspaper that is critical of the armed forces in the country
- Non-traditional security.
- Non-traditional security.
- Non-traditional security.
- Non-traditional security.
- Not a threat.
What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security ? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliances belong to ?
Differentiate between the traditional and the non-traditional notions of security.
Mainly, there are two types of Security:
traditional and non-traditional. Traditional security
mainly concerns with the national security. Traditional
security relates only to extremely dangerous threats
– threats that could endanger the core values of
the whole country. Traditional concepts of security
are mainly concerned with the use of threat of use
of military force. But non-traditional security goes
beyond military attack or threat. It includes a wide
range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions
of existence. In the traditional security, the referent
is the state whereas in the non-traditional conception,
the referent is expanded. In the non-traditional
conception of Security, not only the state but also
individual and the whole humanity are the referent.
Non-traditional view of security is also known as
‘Human Security’ or ‘Global Security’.
Creation and sustenance of alliances belong to the traditional security.
What are the differences in the threats that people in the third world face and those living in the first world face ?
How are threats faced by the people in the third world different from those faced by the people living in the First World ? Support your answer with examples.
After the Second World War, the era of Cold War emerged between Soviet Bloc and American Bloc. About one-third of all the wars took place due to Cold War between the two Superpowers. Most of these wars took place in the Third World. Just as European colonial rulers feared violence in the colonies, similarly in some colonies, after independence, people feared that they might be attacked by their former colonial rulers.
The Security challenges were faced by the Third World (Asian and African Countries) countries. Third World countries faced the prospect of military conflicts with the neighbouring countries. They also faced internal threats. Third World countries feared more from their neighbours than from Soviet Union or America. Moreover, these countries also feared due to separatist movements which wanted to become an independent country. Sometimes external and internal threats merged.
Is terrorism a traditional or nontraditional threat to security ?
Terrorism is a non-traditional threat to security. Terrorism is a new threat to the lives of individual and mankind. It has emerged in the end of the 20th century.
What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened according to the traditional security perspective ?
When there is threat of war, a government has three choices :
- To surrender before the aggressor.
- To prevent the state from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level.
- To defend itself when there is actually a war.
What is ‘Balance of Power’ ?
How could a state achieve this ?
Explain balance of power as a component of traditional security policy. How could a state achieve this balance ?
Introduction. The concept of Balance of Power is the oldest and most controversial of all the concepts of international politics. This concept developed gradually as the structure of society formed into nations. The concept of balance of power has been present wherever and whenever the multiple-state system has existed. The contemporary writers call this theory ‘a basic principle of international relations’ and ‘fundamental law of politics.’
Definition and Meaning of Balance of Power. Critics have given different opinions regarding the definition and meaning of ‘Balance of Power’. Their views regarding Balance of Power are given below :
- To Quincy Wright, “It is a system designed to maintain a continuous conviction in any state that if it attempts aggression it would encounter an invincible combination of the others.”
- Morgenthau holds that, “it is an actual state of affairs in which power is distributed among several nations with approximate equality.”
These definitions show diversity in the views of scholars regarding the meaning of Balance of Power. Balance of Power is an application of the checks and balance theory of domestic politics to international politics.
Devices for Maintaining Balance of Power The balance of power creates an equilibrium which is temporary and improvised. It is in this sense dynamic. In order to maintain a favourable balance of power, the States have been continually engaged in evolving certain devices. These are as follows:
- Alliances and Counter-Alliances. The most commonly applied technique for the maintenance of balance of power is the system of alliance. This system is as old as the known history of States. According to Morgenthau, “Alliances are necessary for function of the balance of power operating within a multiple State system.”
- Armament and Disarmament. Amassing the armaments is the most visible way of gaining power advantage. Whenever a nation increases its military power, its rival nations also enter a race of armaments. The best example is that of USA and USSR in this respect. Disarmament is also sometimes a weapon of balance of power. But in practice disarmament efforts for maintaining balance have been disappointing.
- Compensation. This technique involves the redistribution of territory in such a way that international equilibrium is not disturbed. Each great power receives equal share of territory.
- Buffer State. The third way of acquiring power and maintaining it, according to Mahendra Kumar, “is to set up a neutral buffer State which is weak and which is situated between two large and unfriendly nations. The function of such a buffer State is to keep the large unfriendly powers apart and thus minimize the chances of war between them.” Poland was a buffer State between Russia and Germany.
- Intervention and Non-intervention. It often happens that a major nation tries to regain a lost ally or puts up a new ally by intervening in the internal affairs of a smaller country and establishing there a friendly Government. Britain intervened in Greece at the end of World War II in order to ensure that Greece did not fall into the hands of Communists. Likewise Russia did the same in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. USA is a great interventionist in Latin America. India intervened in Bangladesh struggle.
- Divide and Rule. Lastly there is a method of altering the distribution of power by detaching allies from the opposite side, compelling them either into neutrality or isolated position of winning their friendship. Britain has pursued this policy with great success in many of her colonies.
- Holder of Balance. Since changes in the power
of nations take place so often, there is the necessity of
the balance or the holder of balance, or the laughing
third party. The balancer is a nation or a group of
nations which remains aloof from the rivalries of
others and plays the role of the laughing third party
by posing temptations to the other equal parties so
that each of the contending parties to win over the
support of the balance.
Thus, these are the devices of Balance of Power.
What are the objectives of military alliances ? Give an example of functioning of military alliance with its specific objectives.
Military alliances were made after the Second World War in the era of the Cold War. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack. Most alliances are based on written treaties or agreements. Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change.
Objectives of Military Alliance.
- Military alliances provide collective security to member states against attack by big powers.
- Military alliances increase the power of the big state who leads the alliance.
- Another objective of Military alliance is to maintain balance of power.
Example of Military Alliance. NATO and Warsaw Pact are examples of military alliance. NATO came into being as a defence organisation against the Soviet Union. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was signed on 4th April, 1949 between 12 states: USA and its allies. The leaders of NATO–USA was successful in expanding this alliance in the Post Cold War period. After the disintegration of Soviet Union many members of Warsaw Pact became the members of NATO.
Even Russia became a partner of NATO.
Aims of NATO. NATO is based on a Preamble and 14 Articles.
- The Preamble reaffirms the faith of the parties to the treaty in the purposes and principles of the Charter of U.N.
- The members are determined to safeguard their freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their people founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and rule of law.
- The main aim of NATO was to serve as a deterrent against a Soviet attack on Europe.
Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Do you agree with the statement ? Substantiate your argument.
Environment pollution is a serious problem of modern world. The U.N. National Research Council defines pollution as “a desirable change in characteristics of our air, land and water that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of other desirable species, over industrial processes, living condition and cultural assets or that may or will waste or deteriorate our war material resources.” Whatever the form of pollution is, it certainly effects living conditions. Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Air pollution, Water pollution, Land pollution and Sound pollution are creating various health problems for human being. Dirty water is the world’s biggest killer and it is the biggest pollution problem.
Nuclear Weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against Contemporary security threats to States. Explain the Statement.
Since the beginning of civilisation, the individual and also the state derived the sense of security or deterrence or defence from the weapons that it had been in possession. In fact, possession of weapon gave strength to the individual as well as to the state. With the passage of time forms or type of weapons has changed. In the 20th Century most sophisticated weapons has developed.
Present age is an age of nuclear weapon. Nuclear weapons are very destructive and these threaten the existence of humanity. Nuclear weapons will destroy not only the enemy state but also the country which will use them. Use of Nuclear Weapons or atomic bombs will effect almost the whole world. That is why it is rightly said that the nuclear weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against contemporary security treats to states.
Looking of the Indian Scenario, what type of security has been given priority in India, traditional or nontraditional? What examples could you cite to substantiate the argument ?
What is meant by Security ? Mention any four components of Indian Security.
Security of a country is a vital issue for the well-being of the country and its people. Security in simple words means freedom from threats. But every type of threat is not a threat to security. Only those things that threaten the core values are threat to security.
India has faced traditional and non-traditional threats to its security. India has faced external danger to its security as well as danger from within. After Independence India adopted its own security policy and even now the same policy is being followed by the present government. Measures are adopted to protect the sovereignty and integrity of the country and other threats such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, terrorism, diseases, etc.
Security Policy or Security Strategy.
Main features of India’s Security Strategy are as follow :
- Strengthening of Military Power and Capabilities. At the time of independence India faced threats to its security from neighbouring states as well as from within due to communal violence. India has to build up its military strength and its capabilities. India adopted the policy of making nuclear tests to safeguard its security. Indian conducted nuclear tests in 1974 and in 1998 successfully.
- Strengthening International Organisations, International norms and laws. India has strengthened International Institutions, Organisation, International norms, International law, etc. to protect its security interests. India has full faith in the United Nations and has always supported the activities of the United Nations. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister, finally supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament, etc. To be more effective, Indian leaders have suggested many reforms in the structure and functioning of U.N. India has argued for an equitable New International Economic Order : Instead of joining any Bloc India preferred to follow the policy of non-alignment. India joined 160 countries that have signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Indian troops have been sent to other countries on U.N. peace-keeping mission.
- Policy of Meeting the Internal Threats. India adopted firm policy to deal with militant groups, separatists, etc. of Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir. Separatists have tried to break away from India. They threatened unity and integrity of the country. Indian government adopted democratic method to deal with separatists but firmly told them that there can be no compromise with nation’s unity and security.
- Economic and Social Development. Concentration on Socio-economic development is another feature of India’s Security Strategy. India has been making great efforts to develop economy in such a way so that the problems of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy and inequality are solved. Indian government is trying very hard to combine economic growth with human development. At the time of Independence literacy rate was 18 per cent which is now about 65 per cent.
- Secularism. India has adopted policy of secularism to deal with communalism. Secularism has promoted the spirit of national unity and communal harmony.
- National Security Advisor. For the last few years Indian Government has started appointing National Security Advisor. The main function of National Security advisor is to point out the shortcomings in security system and to give suggestion to improve the security system.
Read the Cartoon below and write a short note in favour or against the connection between war and terrorism depicted in this cartoon.
The Cartoon shown above shows close relation between war and terrorism. Both war and terrorism are organised, planned and deliberate acts of violence. Both war and terrorism are against democracy and crime against humanity. Both are responsible for destruction of property and mankind. Both war and terrorism have no faith in peace and human values. Both war and terrorism have become a global phenomenon. War is terrible and terrorism makes it more terrible.